This outline is focused on the elections of non-county entities. For county elections, see Section 2.056, Election Code.
- Statutory Authority for Cancellation of Election
AMENDED LAW Senate Bill 1970, Section 1, 81st Legislative Session (2009), provides that a special election of a political subdivision (such as a measure or a special vacancy election) is a separate election for purposes of the cancellation procedures governed by Chapter 2 of the Texas Election Code. Under previous law, a special election for a measure or a contest vacancy election precluded the cancellation of a general election for officers, even if the candidates for the general election were unopposed.
- Sec. 2.051. Applicability of Subchapter.
- The cancellation law applies only to an election for officers of a political subdivision other than a county in which write-in votes may be counted only for names appearing on a list of write-in candidates.
- A special election of a political subdivision is considered a separate election with a separate ballot from:
- a general election for offices of the political subdivision held at the same time as the special election;
- another special election of the political subdivision at the same time.
- In the case of an election in which any members of the political subdivision's governing body are elected from territorial units such as single-member districts, this subchapter applies to the election in a particular territorial unit if:
Each candidate for an office that is to appear on the ballot in that territorial unit is unopposed and no at-large proposition or opposed at-large race is to appear on the ballot. This subchapter applies to an unopposed at-large race in such an election regardless of whether an opposed race is to appear on the ballot in a particular territorial unit.
- A school district has six trustees. They hold specific places, but are elected at large. Places 1, 2, and 4 are up for election in May. There are two candidates each for places 1 and 2. There is only one candidate for place 4. All the at large candidates must appear on the ballot. The race for place 4 cannot be cancelled.
- A groundwater water district has five directors. Four are elected from their respective commissioner precincts. One is elected at large. Directors from precincts 1 and 3 are up for election in May. There are two candidates for precinct 1 and only one for precinct 3. The election for precinct 3 can be cancelled.
- The same groundwater district. The following May, directors from precincts 2 and 4 and the at-large director are up. The two precinct directors are unopposed; the at-large director is opposed. All three positions must appear on the ballot; nothing can be cancelled.
- In a city general election, the mayor is opposed; the other at-large councilmembers are unopposed. Nothing can be cancelled. All the at-large candidates must appear on the ballot, because the at-large race for mayor is opposed.
- Sec. 2.081. Cancellation of Moot Measure.
A political subdivision is authorized to cancel a measure election if it is determined that the action authorized by the election may not be implemented regardless of the outcome of the election.
- Sec. 2.082 Specific Authority for Cancellation Required.
An entity must have specific statutory authority to cancel an election.
- Sec. 2.051. Applicability of Subchapter.
- Certification Required
- Sec. 2.052. Certification of unopposed status (sample form (PDF) attached).
- The authority responsible for having the official ballot prepared shall certify in writing that a candidate is unopposed for election to an office (in other words, the outcome is already known due to the lack of opposition).
- The certification shall be delivered to the governing body of the political subdivision as soon as possible after the filing deadlines for placement on the ballot and on the list of write-in candidates.
- Sec. 2.053. Action on certification.
- On receipt of the certification, the governing body of the political subdivision by order or ordinance may declare each unopposed candidate elected to the office. A sample ordinance (PDF) is attached.
- If a declaration of unopposed candidates is made, the election is not held. A copy of the order or ordinance must be posted on election day at each polling place that would have been used in the election.
Exception due to AMENDED LAW: if the entity is conducting a separate election at the same time as the cancelled election, the declared elected candidates shall be listed separately on the ballot under the heading “Unopposed Candidates Declared Elected.” The candidates shall be grouped in the same relative order prescribed for the ballot generally. No votes are cast in connection with the candidates.
- A certificate of election must be issued to each candidate in the same manner and at the same time as provided for a candidate elected at the election. The candidate must qualify for the office in the same manner as provided for a candidate elected at the election.
NOTE: Candidates cannot take office until the regular canvassing period would have taken place.
- Sec. 2.054. Coercion against candidacy prohibited.
- A person commits an offense if by intimidation or by means of coercion the person influences or attempts to influence a person to not file an application for a place on the ballot or a declaration of write-in candidacy in an election, or to withdraw an application or declaration.
- In this section, “coercion” has the meaning assigned by Section 1.07, Penal Code.
- An offense under this section is a Class A misdemeanor unless the intimidation or coercion is a threat to commit a felony, in which event it is a third degree felony.
- Sec. 2.052. Certification of unopposed status (sample form (PDF) attached).
Cancellation Questions & Answers
Basis For Cancelling:
Q: Which political subdivisions can use the cancellation law?
A: Any political subdivision WITH a write-in deadline for candidates, IF:
- The write-in deadline has passed;
- No candidates have filed opposing a candidate; and
- Each race within the separate election* is unopposed (with exceptions outlined below).
*Note about “separate election”: Under amended law, a general election (for full terms) is considered a separate election from a special election (for unexpired terms), even if the elections are held on the same day.
Note about write-ins: If the law governing write-in candidates for your specific type of political subdivision is silent, then the general rule is that any name written in by the voter is counted. See § 146.001, Election Code. In these circumstances, there is no legal write-in filing deadline, which means that it is possible for people to receive votes in the election and opposed a candidate who filed for a place on the ballot; therefore, political subdivisions which fall into this category may NOT cancel their elections.
This outline is focused on non-county entities. For county elections, see Section 2.056, Election Code.
Q: Can I cancel part of my election if some of my single-member district positions are unopposed?
A: If one of your single member district positions is unopposed, you may cancel the election within that single-member district only if there are no opposed at-large races within that election. You would continue to conduct the election for those single-member districts with opposed candidates. Note: Under amended law, a general election (for full terms) is considered a separate election from a special election (for unexpired terms), even if the elections are held on the same day.
Q: What if my election is “pure at large”? If I have three positions open and three candidates, can I still cancel the election even though my candidates don’t run by position?
A: Yes, you may still cancel your election if you have the same number of positions and candidates in an at-large election. For example, if you have three positions up for election and only three candidates file, and the “top three vote-getters” win office, then you may declare those candidates elected and cancel the election.
Q: What if I have 3 positions on the ballot, 3 candidates, and a bond election? Can I cancel everything but the bond election, since we know who will win the candidate races?
A: Yes. Under the amended law, special elections (such as measure or proposition elections, or special elections to fill unexpired terms) are considered separate elections. This means that if you have unopposed candidates in all races, you may cancel that portion of the election, even though there is a bond (or other proposition) election remaining on the ballot. Again, the uncontested candidates’ names will appear on the ballot under the category “Unopposed Candidates Declared Elected.” The canvass is conducted as normal. However if you have one opposed at-large race for Place 1 (for example) then you cannot cancel the other full by-place terms.
Q: We have a proposition scheduled for the ballot and I am finding the rules confusing. One part of the law says one thing and the other part of the law says another. Section 2.051(b) still says you cannot cancel in a single-member district if there is still an at-large proposition on the ballot. However, your office and Section 2.051(a) seem to say that a special election can be treated separately. I thought every election for a proposition (like a bond election) was considered a “special election” under Section 1.005.
A: You are correct that every election for a proposition (like a bond election) is considered a “special election” under Section 1.005. Our answer is based on the newer, more recently amended law at Section 2.051(a), which emphasizes how a special election is treated separately for cancellation purposes. The older legal phrase at Section 2.051(b) you refer to was likely a legislative oversight that should have been repealed when the other changes were made in 2009. We hope to address this in clean-up legislation in the future.
How To Cancel:
Q: Do we have to cancel our election at an open meeting of the governing body?
A: Yes. Cancelling an election is NOT automatic. After the certificate of unopposed status is completed and delivered, the governing body must meet and vote to cancel the election and certify the unopposed candidates “elected.”
Q: May we post the agenda 72 hours before the filing deadline so that we can meet the night of the filing deadline after 5:00 p.m.?
A: Yes, but be careful not to phrase the agenda in a way that would mislead candidates into thinking the deadline is already over. With that in mind, our office recommends stating that if no candidate files by the filing deadline, then the governing body will decide whether to cancel the election, or similar language. Since this notice affects information about the elections process, the notice must be bilingual. Ch. 272, Election Code.
Q: What is the earliest date we can hold the open meeting to cancel the election?
A: The write-in deadline must pass before the authority is authorized to declare candidates unopposed. Many people wish to cancel as soon as possible. For example, if your governing body schedules a meeting after 5:00 p.m. on the day of the write-in deadline, the notice must be posted 72 hours in advance, i.e., during the filing period. Therefore, you may conduct the meeting the night of the deadline, but do not mislead potential candidates when wording the posted agenda (i.e., avoid making the notice sound as if the deadline has already passed).
Q: Must the cancellation of election be submitted to the U. S. Department of Justice for “preclearance”?A: Updated advice: On June 25, 2013, the United States Supreme Court issued its decision in Shelby County, Alabama v. Holder, No. 12-96, 2013 WL 3184629 (U.S.) (U.S. Jun. 25, 2013). That decision holds that Section 4 of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 is unconstitutional and its formula can no longer be used as a basis for subjecting jurisdictions to preclearance. Both the Attorney General of the United States and the Texas Attorney General have indicated that Shelby takes effect immediately. Accordingly, unless and until there is new law from the United States Congress signed by the President or other court order, the Texas Attorney General has advised the Secretary of State that it is no longer required to submit voting changes to the DOJ for preclearance. We suggest that Texas counties or other Texas political subdivision discuss the effect of Shelby and the continuing applicability of other provisions of the Voting Rights Act with their legal counsel.
Q: What kind of notice must be given if the election is cancelled and no separate election is being held?
A: The law requires only that a copy of the action taken by the governing body be posted on election day at each polling place that would have been used in an election. You may simply post copies of the cancellation order on the polling place door.
We have also been asked if you should amend the polling place notice in case you have cancelled one of several elections, so that voters know the polling place still has an election taking place inside; we agree. While it is not required, it would be helpful if you can interest your local media in running a spot on the radio or in the newspaper, to acquaint voters with the change in the law. This notice, like any other election notice, must be bilingual. See Ch. 272, Election Code.
Q: The Election Code says that we declare the unopposed candidates “elected.” Does that mean they take over immediately after the filing deadlines -- a month before election day?
A: No. Although Section 2.053(a) states that the new officers are declared “elected” when the election is cancelled, we think that the section read as a whole indicates that the incumbents serve out the traditional term, i.e., until the next election (day) and until their successors have qualified. The section as a whole provides that after the cancellation order, notice is posted on election day (§2.053(b)), then the certificate of election is issued “in the same manner and at the same time” (§2.053(c)). The Elections Division interprets this to mean that the new officers are issued the certificate of election after election day, as usual. (The status of the officers-elect between the time of the cancellation order and the issuance of the certificate of election after election day is roughly analogous to the usual (though shorter) period between the time unofficial results are announced on election night and the time the certificate of election is issued.)
Q: When are the unopposed candidates sworn in?
A: Section 2.053 provides that the certificate of election shall be issued “in the same manner and at the same time” as for a candidate elected at an election. Therefore, the candidates, who have been declared “elected” at the meeting ordering the cancellation, must wait until after the official election day (even though no election is held) and no earlier than the prescribed canvassing period (even though no canvass is held) to be sworn in and assume their duties.
After election day, the presiding officer of the canvassing authority will issue certificates of election to the unopposed candidates, and they are sworn into office “in the same manner” provided for a candidate elected at an election. Sec. 67.016, Election Code. This also means that a statement of elected officer (also referred to as the pre-oath statement) must be completed before the new officer can be sworn in. The statement should be maintained locally; it is no longer required to be filed with the Secretary of State’s office.
Q: Does a Type A governing body still need to wait until the sixth day after the election to install officers if the election is cancelled? (Local Government Code, Section 22.036 requires the newly-elected governing body to meet at the usual meeting place to be installed on or after the fifth day after the election excluding Sunday, i.e., the sixth day after the election.)
A: Yes, the sixth-day requirement still applies for Type A cities, even if they have cancelled their election.We further note that if some unopposed candidates are declared elected, and others are not, the election results for the offices that are being voted upon cannot be canvassed until all the new legal procedures relating to provisional ballots are concluded; this will usually take longer than the Section 22.036 timeline. See most recent calendar for details.
Q: Is an open meeting required to issue the certificate of election after election day when an election is cancelled?
A: No, unless required by outside law. The presiding officer of the canvassing authority issues the certificate of election. Sec. 67.016, Election Code. Since the governing body does not need to meet to canvass, the presiding officer may act alone. (But see also Sec. 31.121, Election Code if presiding officer fails to act).
Q: Do we still have to send the statement of elected officer (“pre-oath statement”) to the Statutory Documents Division of the Secretary of State’s office?
A: No, it is required to be maintained locally. The “pre-oath” statement of elected officer may be completed at any time after unofficial results are determined after 7:00 p.m. election night (when an election is held), or at any time after the officers-elect are declared elected at the meeting cancelling the election. Again, remember that the final oath of office cannot be administered until after the date the election would have been held, no earlier than the prescribed time period for holding the canvass.
Q: Water Districts: What do you mean, “most” water districts require declared write-ins?
A: In 1995, the Texas Legislature made extensive revisions to the Water Code and many, but not all, water districts (whether created by general or special law) were brought under write-in declaration requirements in Chapters 49 and 36 of the Water Code. The Chapter 63 navigation districts are subject to the general write-in deadline in Chapter 146 of the Texas Election Code. (For more detail, see Candidacy outline). Thus, if the water district is under a different law, and that law is silent as to a declaration, then none is required and the election may not be cancelled. NEW LAW: Senate Bill 902 2013) added a write-in declaration requirement for water district confirmation election procedures at Section 49.102, Water Code (applicable to most water districts); a special law could provide for open write-ins in a confirmation election.
Q: What if we have a joint election agreement and one of the parties cancels?
A: Make every effort to arrange in advance for this possibility when preparing the written agreement. In particular, we recommend providing for who will publish notice, hire election workers, and conduct the canvass, etc. in the event that one of the parties cancels their election.
Q: What if the reason for not conducting the election was that no one filed at all?
A: At the canvass, declare the official result: that no one filed to run in the election. At that moment, a vacancy is created as to the new term, which is filled in the usual manner for your type of office. See most recent post-election advisories available under Conducting Your Elections.
Q: Are these the rules for county elections?
A: There are some differences. See Section 2.056, Election Code.
2015 Legislative Updates
Q: We’ve heard there is new law (House Bill 484) that says that a candidate must be a registered voter of the territory he or she is elected from by the filing deadline. Can we reject an application based on this new law for a May 7, 2016 election (and therefore possibly cancel the election)?
See our VR for Candidates (HB 484) FAQ
Here is a summary of major issues to review before you reject a candidate’s application (and declare another candidate unopposed). These are explained in more detail in the FAQ.
First, you need to make sure the new law applies to you. The new law does not apply to a member of the governing body of a district created under Section 52(b)(1) or (2), Article III, or Section 59, Article XVI, Texas Constitution. Generally, this includes various types of water districts. Check with TCEQ (Texas Commission on Environmental Quality) staff if you are not sure what kind of water district you are. It is also possible that a home-rule city charter or outside law could provide an exception with express, conflicting language.
Second, the voter registration number (also called a VUID) is not required to be on the face of the application form (or declaration of write-in candidacy). It is the candidate’s voter registration status (not whether the number is on the application form) that should be the basis for the rejection.
Third, remember that you will need to make the determination by the deadline for removing a candidate’s name from the ballot based on ineligibility. For the deadline, see our most recent calendar on your page under Conducting Your Elections.
This answer (and our FAQ) are about what you can do based on House Bill 484 (effective September 1, 2015). A home-rule charter or special law (for example) might have a different rule already in effect applicable to candidates.
Q: Has the notice requirement changed under House Bill 3157?
A: No. However, based on House Bill 3157, effective September 1, 2015, Election Code Section 2.081 is amended to provide that a county election officer, as defined by Section 31.091, may use a single combined notice of cancellation for all authorities: (1) for which the officer provides election services under contract; and (2) that declare an election moot under Section 2.081(a).Note: In the opinion of our office, we think several entities could agree to a joint notice under current law (by contract with the county, or joint election agreement).