TITLE 19. EDUCATION

PART 2. TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY

CHAPTER 110. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING

The State Board of Education (SBOE) adopts new §§110.1-110.7 and 110.21-110.24, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for English language arts and reading. New §110.1 and §110.21 are adopted without changes to the proposed text as published in the March 3, 2017, issue of the Texas Register (42 TexReg 861) and will not be republished. New §§110.2-110.7 and 110.22-110.24 are adopted with changes to the proposed text as published in the March 3, 2017, issue of the Texas Register (42 TexReg 861). The adopted new sections add new English language arts and reading TEKS for elementary and middle school for implementation in the 2019-2020 school year.

REASONED JUSTIFICATION. Applications for appointment to English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees were accepted by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) from March 5, 2015, through April 6, 2015. The applications received were provided to SBOE members at the April 2015 meeting, and nominations for English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees and appointments of expert reviewers were made in spring 2015. Committee members were notified of the appointment in July 2015. The expert reviewers completed their review of the current TEKS and submitted initial reports to the SBOE in July 2015. Committee members participated in a training webinar in August 2015 in preparation for the first face-to-face meeting. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened in Austin in September 2015 to begin work on draft recommendations for the TEKS. The committees convened again in November 2015 to complete their initial draft recommendations.

In December 2015, the first draft recommendations were provided to the board and to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website for informal public feedback. In accordance with the board's review process, each of the expert reviewers and one member of each TEKS review committee presented invited testimony at the January 2016 meeting.

The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened for a third time in February 2016 in order to review feedback and work on the vertical alignment of the TEKS across grade levels and subjects. At the request of the board chair, representatives from each of the vertical alignment committees were asked to attend the April 2016 meeting to answer questions from board members. At that time, the board provided additional direction for the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committee members to address at their next meeting.

The committees met for a fourth time in April 2016 to address the board's direction and finalize their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committees' final recommendations were provided to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website in June 2016.

Representatives from the TEKS review committees convened in Austin in June 2016 to review the drafts and provide feedback regarding whether the recommended TEKS for each grade level or course can reasonably be taught within the amount of time typically allotted for the subject or course prior to the end of the school year or a state end-of-course assessment required by Texas Education Code (TEC), §39.023, as applicable.

At the July 2016 meeting, the committee heard invited testimony from board-appointed expert reviewers regarding their feedback on the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees' final recommendations. At that meeting, the board discussed next steps, reviewed timeline considerations for issuance of a proclamation for instructional materials for English and Spanish language arts and reading, and requested that staff make technical edits to the proposed revisions. The board also requested that the SBOE-appointed experts review the edited final recommendations and make suggestions to ensure the appropriate vertical alignment of the proposed TEKS. Additionally, the board requested feedback on the proposed revisions to the English language arts and reading TEKS from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. The expert reviewers met in August 2016 and again in November 2016 to work on their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The expert reviewers also met virtually with representatives from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board panel to discuss higher education recommendations. Drafts resulting from that work were provided at the November 2016 meeting. At that time, the SBOE requested that the expert reviewers finalize their recommendations. The expert reviewers conducted virtual meetings in November 2016 and December 2016 to complete their recommendations.

The proposed new kindergarten-Grade 12 English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS were presented for first reading and filing authorization at the January/February 2017 meeting, and a public hearing on the proposed new sections was held at that time. At the meeting, the SBOE approved for first reading and filing authorization proposed new English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS for kindergarten-Grade 8. However, the board postponed first reading and filing authorization on proposed new English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS for high school until the April 2017 meeting.

At the April 2017 SBOE meeting, the committee recommended changes to proposed new 19 TAC Chapter 110, Subchapters A and B, and 19 TAC Chapter 128, Subchapters A and B, for second reading and final adoption. The SBOE postponed second reading and final adoption of 19 TAC Chapter 110, Subchapters A and B, and 19 TAC Chapter 128, Subchapters A and B, to a special meeting in May to provide additional time for the board and TEA staff to ensure that the changes were accurately incorporated into the TEKS. The delay did not extend the public comment period on these standards.

The new sections were approved by the SBOE for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017 meeting and for second reading and final adoption at its May 10, 2017 meeting.

In accordance with the TEC, §7.102(f), the SBOE approved the new sections for adoption by a vote of two-thirds of its members to specify an effective date earlier than the beginning of the 2018-2019 school year. The earlier effective date will enable districts to begin preparing for implementation of the revised English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS.

The following changes were made to adopted new 19 TAC Chapter 110, Subchapters A and B, since published as proposed.

§110.2, English Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language: "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing".

The student expectation in subsection (b)(1)(A) was amended to add the phrase "and answer questions using multi-word responses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(1)(B) was amended to add the phrase "restate and" before the phrase "follow directions."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(5) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with the phrase "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(B) was amended to add written responses to the list of types responses to texts students are expected to provide.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well known-children's literature and to change the list of types of children's literature to illustrative examples.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace "participate in and identify main characters in a play" with "discuss main characters in drama."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D)(i) was amended to strike main idea from and add supporting evidence to the characteristics and structures of informational text that students are expected to recognize.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(9) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(iv) was amended to eliminate descriptive adjectives and to add articles to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts with adult assistance.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(v) was added to include prepositions in the list of the standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts with adult assistance

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(vi) was added to include objective and possessive cases of prepositions in the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts with adult assistance.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(v) was deleted.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(ix) was added to read, "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(E) was added to read "share writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(E) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§110.3, English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language: "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with the phrase "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "how their feelings and actions change" with the phrase "and the reason(s) for their actions."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well known-children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to change the phrase "elements of a play" to "elements of drama."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "or main" and add the phrase "and supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to replace "temporal sequence and description" with "organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance."

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(E) was amended to change the word "text" to the word "texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to replace the word "verbs" with "verb tense."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to eliminate descriptive adjectives and to add articles to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vii) was amended to include objective and possessive cases of prepositions in the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was added to read, "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words with adult assistance."

Student expectation (b)(12)(C) was amended to add the phrase "such as thank you notes or letters."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(E) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§110.4, English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language: "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(v) was amended to add the word "patterns" after the word "division."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(C) was amended to add the phrase "and use" after the phrase "identify the meaning of."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(D) was amended to add the word "use" after the word "identify."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with the phrase "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(B) was amended to add the phrase "that demonstrate an understanding of the text."

Student expectation (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace the word "problem" with "conflict."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well known-children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to change "identify" to "discuss" and "elements of a play" to "elements of drama."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "or main" and add the phrase "and supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to add the phrase "organizational patterns such as" before chronological order.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(E)(ii) was added to require that students must distinguish facts from opinion in persuasive text.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(F) was amended to add the phrase "identify and" before the word "explain."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to replace the word "verbs" with "verb tense."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to eliminate descriptive adjectives and to add articles to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts with adult assistance.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vii) was amended to add objective and possessive cases of prepositions to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(viii) was added to include "coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects and predicates" in the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was amended to add "apostrophes in contractions" and "commas with items in a series and dates" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was added to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Student expectation (b)(12)(C) was amended to add the phrase "such as thank you notes or letters."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(G) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§110.5, English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language: "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing," listed in each strand.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(iv) was amended to add the word "patterns" after the word "division."

Student expectation (b)(2)(A)(vi) was amended to delete the phrase "changes to," add the phrase "suffixes, including how they can change" before base words and delete the phrase "when suffixes are added."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(v) was amended to add the word "patterns" after the word "division."

Student expectation (b)(2)(B)(vii) was amended to delete the phrase "changes to," add the phrase "suffixes, including how they can change" before base words and delete the phrase "when suffixes are added."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(C) was amended to add the phrase "and use" after the phrase "identify the meaning of."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(D) was amended to add the word "use" and the word "homophones."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with the phrase "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(B) was amended to change the word "relationship" to "relationships."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace the word "problem" with the word "conflict."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well known-children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to change "identify" to "discuss" and "elements of a play" to "elements of drama."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(ii) was amended to strike the phrase "of the text."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to add the phrase "organizational patterns such as."

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(G) was amended to add the phrase "identify and" before the word "explain" and to replace the word "repetition" with "hyperbole."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to replace the change "verbs" to "verb tense."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to replace "descriptive and limiting adjectives" with "adjectives, including their comparative form."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vii) was amended to strike the word "possessive" and add "including subjective, objective, and possessive cases" of pronouns to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was amended to add "commas in compound sentences and items in a series" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was added to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(A) was amended to strike the "fiction" from the list of literary texts students are expected to write and add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(B) was amended to add "brief compositions that convey information to about a topic" as a type of informational text that students are expected to write. The student expectation was also amended to add using "a clear central idea" as a genre characteristic of informational text that students are expected to use.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(H) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§110.6, English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language: "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing," listed in each strand.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(iii) was amended to add the word "patterns" after the word "division."

Student expectation (b)(2)(A)(v) was amended to delete the phrase "changes to," add the phrase "suffixes, including how they can change" before base words and delete the phrase "when suffixes are added."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(ii) was amended to strike the phrase "more difficult."

Student expectation (b)(2)(B)(vi) was amended to delete the phrase "changes to," add the phrase "suffixes, including how they can change" before base words and delete the phrase "when suffixes are added."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(C) was amended to add the phrase "and use" after the phrase "determine the meaning of."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(D) was amended to add the word "use."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with the phrase "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response to compare and contrast" with "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well known-children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to replace "identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes" with "explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(ii) was amended to strike the phrase "of the text."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to add the phrase "organizational patterns such as."

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(G) was amended to add the phrase "and explain" and to replace the word "hyperbole" with "anecdote."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(i) was amended to add "avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "past tense of" before "irregular verbs."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to strike the word "descriptive" before the word "adjectives."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(v) was amended to add "adverbs that convey degree" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vii) was amended to change "reflexive pronouns" to "pronouns, including reflexive."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(viii) was amended to move the word "subjects" to before the word "predicates."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was amended to add "apostrophes in possessives" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was added to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(A) was amended to strike the "fiction" from the list of literary texts students are expected to write and add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(B) add "brief compositions that convey information to about a topic" as a type of informational text that students are expected to write. The student expectation was also amended to add "a clear central idea" as a genre characteristic of informational text that students are expected to use.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(H) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§110.7, English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language: "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(i) was amended to add the phrase "words with" before "consonant changes."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "words with" before "consonant changes."

Student expectation (b)(2)(B)(vi) was amended to delete the phrase "changes to," add the phrase "suffixes, including how they can change" before base words and delete the phrase "when suffixes are added."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(C) was amended to add the phrase "and use" after the phrase "identify the meaning of."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(D) was amended to add the word "use" after the word "identify."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with the phrase "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response to compare and contrast" with "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well known-children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to replace "identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes" with "explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(ii) was amended to strike the phrase "of text."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to add the phrase "organizational patterns such as" before the phrase "logical order."

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(G) was amended to add "and anecdote" after stereotyping.

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(i) was amended to add "avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "past tense of" before "irregular verbs."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to strike the word "descriptive."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(v) was amended to add the word "conjunctive" before "adverbs" and to strike the phrase "that convey frequency and intensity."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vii) was amended to change "indefinite pronouns" to "pronouns, including indefinite."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(viii) was amended to replace the word "correlative" with "subordinating" and to replace the phrase "such as either/or and neither/nor" with the phrase "to form complex sentences."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was amended to add "complex sentences" and "italics and underlining for titles and emphasis" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was added to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was subsumed into student expectation (b)(11)(D)(x) and deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(A) was amended to add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(B) was amended to include "brief compositions that convey information about a topic" as a type of informational text that students are expected to write. The student expectation was also amended to add "a clear central idea" as a genre characteristic of informational text that students are expected to use.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(H) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§110.22, English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language: "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

Subsection (a)(2) of the introduction was revised to strike the sentences related to encoding and decoding.

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(2)-(12) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(5) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with the phrase "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response with accurate text evidence to compare" with the phrase "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(D) was amended to replace "compare and contrast historical and cultural settings across texts" with "analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace "identify the elements of a play, including acts, scenes, stage directions, and scripted dialogue" with "analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with the word "analyze" and to replace "structures" with "structural elements."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D)(ii) was amended to strike the phrase "of the text."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(E) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with the word "analyze."

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(F) was added to read "analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(9) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "identify and" and to replace the phrase "the use of hyperbole and sarcasm in texts" with the phrase "rhetorical devices and logical fallacies."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(B)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "paragraph-to-paragraph" and add "within and across paragraphs."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(i) was amended to add "avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "appropriate use of" before "verb tenses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(v) was amended to remove indefinite pronouns and to add relative pronouns to the to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(vi) was amended to replace the phrase "after, because, although, and if to form complex sentences" with "to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(viii) was amended to add the phrase "punctuation marks, including" before "commas," strike the phrase "compound and" before "complex sentences," strike the phrase "and after" before "transitions," and replace the phrase "words and phrases" with "elements."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(ix) was deleted, and xi was renumbered as ix.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(x) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(xi) was renumbered as (b)(10)(D)(ix) and amended to add the terms " there/their/they're and to/two/too" as examples of commonly confused terms that students are expected to spell correctly when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(C) was amended to add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(G)(i) was amended by adding the phrase "credibility and bias."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(G)(ii) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(J) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§110.23, English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language: "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

Subsection (a)(2) of the introduction was revised to strike the sentences related to encoding and decoding.

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (a)(2)-(12) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(5) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with the phrase "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response with accurate text evidence to compare" with the phrase "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace the word "describe" with "analyze" and to strike the phrase "of their plays."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with "analyze" and to replace "structures" with "structural elements."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D)(ii) was amended to strike "graphic and text" and add "such as references and acknowledgments."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(E) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with the word "analyze."

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(F) was added to read "analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(9) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was amended to replace "identify and explain loaded language, strawmen, and ad hominem arguments" with "explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(B)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "paragraph-to-paragraph" and add the phrase "within and across paragraphs."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(i) was amended to add "avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "appropriate use of" before "verb tenses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(v) was amended to replace "relative pronouns" with "pronoun-antecedent agreement" in the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(vi) was amended to add "forming complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor" to the ways students are expected to use subordinating conjunctions when editing drafts and strike the illustrative list.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(viii) was amended to replace "commas in compound and complex sentences and after transitions, introductory words, and phrases" with "punctuation, including commas to set off words, phrases, clauses, and semicolons" in the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(ix) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(x) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(xi) was renumbered as (b)(10)(D)(ix) and amended to add the terms "its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too" as examples of commonly confused terms that students are expected to spell correctly when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(C) was amended to add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(G)(i) was amended by adding the phrase "credibility and bias."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(G)(ii) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(J) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§110.24, English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language: "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

Subsection (a)(2) of the introduction was revised to strike the sentences related to encoding and decoding.

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(2)-(12) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(5) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with the phrase "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response with accurate text evidence to compare" with the phrase "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(A) was amended to replace "relationships among thematic development, characterization, point of view, setting, and plot in a variety of literary texts" with "how themes are developed through the interaction of characters and events."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace the word "describe" with the word "analyze."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with the word "analyze" and to replace "structures" with "structural elements."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "features such as" before footnotes.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(E) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with the word "analyze."

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(F) was added to read "analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(9) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was amended to replace "identify and explain the use of rhetorical questions, bandwagon appeals, and sweeping generalizations" with "explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as analogy and juxtaposition and of logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and circular reasoning."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(B)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "paragraph-to-paragraph" and add "within and across paragraphs."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(i) was amended to add "avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "appropriate use of" before "verb tenses" and the phrase "active and passive voice."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(iv) was amended to replace "relative pronouns" with "pronoun-antecedent agreement" in the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(vi) was amended to add "semicolons, colons, and parentheses" as types of punctuation that students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(vii) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(viii) was removed from the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(ix) was renumbered as (b)(10)(D)(vii) and amended to add the terms "its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too" as examples of commonly confused terms that students are expected to spell correctly when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(C) was amended to add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(G)(i) was amended by adding the phrase "credibility and bias, including omission."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(G)(ii) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(J) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

SUMMARY OF COMMENTS AND RESPONSES. Following is a summary of the public comments received and the corresponding responses regarding the proposed new 19 TAC Chapter 110, Subchapters A and B.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern about revisions to the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR®) passing standards to align with newly adopted TEKS.

Response. The comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher stated that collaboration skills are an essential 21st century skill and should not be removed from the English language arts curriculum.

Response. The SBOE agrees and has determined that collaboration skills are appropriately included in the proposed TEKS.

Comment. One community member questioned whether elementary students should be editing for spelling as required in the proposed strand on composition.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that editing for spelling is an appropriate skill for elementary students.

Comment. One teacher recommended revising the student expectations for writing to allow students to self-select topics, similar to how students are expected to self-select texts for reading.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested change is necessary and determined that this could be decided locally.

Comment. One administrator expressed support for the integration of the skills currently addressed in Figure 19 into the proposed TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agrees and has determined that the skills in Figure 19 are appropriately integrated in the comprehension strand.

Comment. One community member stated that student expectations in §110.2(b)(2)(A)-(C) should be removed from the standards because they are only appropriate for students with dyslexia or a language disorder and should be reserved for therapeutic interventions by reading specialists.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that student expectations §110.2(b)(2)(A)-(C) are appropriate for all students.

Comment. One community member expressed concern that the proposed revisions to the English language arts and reading TEKS for kindergarten are not developmentally appropriate for the age of the students.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the TEKS are developmentally appropriate for the grade level.

Comment. One community member asked if student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(iv) is referring to identifying the number of syllables in words or asking for children to say each syllable in a word. The commenter further asked, if it's the latter, what is the difference between §110.2(b)(2)(A)(iv) and (vi).

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(iv) requires students to identify syllables in spoken words, while student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(vi) requires students to segment multisyllabic words into syllables.

Comment. One teacher asked for clarification regarding the meaning of student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(ix) regarding manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(ix) requires that students add, change, or remove syllables within a word to form new words.

Comment. One teacher suggested rewording student expectation §110.2(b)(3)(B) to read "use illustrations and texts to read/hear to clarify/learn word meanings."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the wording in student expectation §110.2(b)(3)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One community member asked what it means to identify high-frequency words from a list in student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(B)(iv).

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(B)(iv) requires students to identify and read at least 25 high-frequency words from a research-based list. How students are expected to identify a word, such as pointing to or finding a word, would be an instructional decision.

Comment. One community member asked what the difference is between §110.2(b)(2)(C)(i) and (ii).

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(C)(i) requires a student to spell words with specific letter-sound relationships, and proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(C)(ii) requires students to spell using sound-spelling patterns but does not indicate or limit to a particular sound-spelling pattern.

Comment. One teacher asked for clarification regarding whether student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(C)(ii) means writing sounds that the student hears in words or using phonetic spelling.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(C)(ii) requires students to spell words using sound-spelling patterns.

Comment. One community member asked how student expectations §110.2(b)(6)(B) and (b)(6)(E) are different.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Student expectation §110.2(b)(6)(B) requires students to provide an oral or pictorial response to a specific text. Student expectation §110.2(b)(6)(E) requires students to interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing but does not specifically require students to develop a response.

Comment. One community member questioned whether the words "discuss topics" should be included in student expectation §110.2(b)(7)(A) regarding literary texts.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the phrase is appropriately included as proposed.

Comment. One community member questioned whether student expectation §110.2(b)(8)(E) is appropriate for kindergarten.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.2(b)(8)(E) is appropriately included at kindergarten.

Comment. One teacher questioned whether adult assistance should be added to student expectation §110.2(b)(9)(E) requiring students to listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

Response. The SBOE disagrees adult assistance should be added to and has determined that student expectation §110.2(b)(9)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Two teachers expressed support for including the phrase "with adult assistance" across the strands as appropriate for kindergarten-Grade 2 students.

Response. The SBOE agrees and has determined that adult assistance is appropriately included across in kindergarten-Grade 2.

Comment. One teacher stated that it is not developmentally appropriate for first graders to be responsible for spelling vowel teams and r-controlled words.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that spelling vowel teams and r-controlled words are appropriately included at first grade.

Comment. One teacher stated that the word "dictate" should not be included in the student expectations for writing in Grade 1 because writing is a developmental process and students need to do the work of writing themselves to experience growth.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that dictating texts is appropriately included at Grade 1.

Comment. One community member stated that standards relating to VCV patterns should also be addressed in first grade.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that VCV patterns are appropriately introduced in Grade 2.

Comment. One community member asked how TEA is defining trigraph in student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(B)(ii) and (2)(C)(ii). The commenter asked if trigraph should be defined as a three-letter spelling for a single sound (e.g., igh, tch), or a three-letter spelling for more than one sound (e.g., thr, spr) or if the definition should include all of these examples.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Additional information and resources related to the new TEKS will be made available prior to implementation of the new TEKS in 2019-2020.

Comment. One university/college staff member recommended deleting student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(C)(i) regarding r-controlled syllable Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(C)(i) regarding r-controlled syllables is appropriately included.

Comment. One university/college staff member suggested that trigraphs be deleted from student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(C)(ii) because complex spelling patterns such as trigraphs are not developmentally appropriate for six-year olds.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that trigraphs are developmentally appropriate for this grade.

Comment. One community member recommended providing examples to show the difference between directions and positions in student expectation §110.3(b)(3)(D).

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(3)(D) is sufficiently clear as proposed.

Comment. One community member expressed concern that the difference between the meanings of topic and theme in student expectation §110.3(b)(8)(A) is unclear.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(8)(A) is appropriately clear.

Comment. One community member stated that students would benefit from simply blending individual sounds as opposed to including consonant blends in the student expectations for phonological awareness and phonics.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the blending of consonant blends is appropriately included in student expectations for phonological awareness and phonics.

Comment. One university/college staff member suggested adding "leaving appropriate spaces between sentences" to student expectations §110.3(b)(2)(F) and §128.3(b)(2)(F) regarding handwriting. The commenter stated that the addition would help students grasp the concept of a sentence.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectations §110.3(b)(2)(F) and §128.3(b)(2)(F) are appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher recommended reducing editing tasks at first grade to checking for capitalization, punctuation, and subject-verb agreement, which would allow more time to teach the writing process.

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change and has determined that editing for capitalization, punctuation, and subject-verb agreement are appropriate at first grade.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the streamlined wording in the proposed revisions to the Grade 1 TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agrees. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes for the proposed TEKS at Grade 1 in response to other comments.

Comment. One community member questioned whether the meaning of visual patterns is clear in student expectation §110.4(b)(9)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the student expectation §110.4(b)(9)(B) lacks clarity and has determined that the meaning of visual patterns is sufficiently clear.

Comment. One community member asked whether for student expectation §110.4(b)(2)(C)(v) spelling instruction must use all the syllable division patterns required in the proposed TEKS (e.g., VCCV, VCV, VCCCV) or if publishers may use their discretion about which syllable division patterns to cover.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One community member suggested adding "segmenting spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes" to the proposed Grade 2 TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that phonemes are appropriately addressed in the proposed Grade 2 TEKS.

Comment. Two teachers expressed concern that many new student expectations have been added at Grade 2 without taking any student expectations away.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the proposed Grade 2 TEKS are appropriate in scope.

Comment. Two teachers recommended providing clarification to the proposed TEKS by adding examples of words (e.g., examples of VCCCV words) and the work students are expected to complete when decoding and spelling.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the words students are expected to spell and decode are appropriately clear.

Comment. One community member asked whether examples will be given for student expectation §110.5(b)(2)(A)(ii).

Response. The SBOE has determined that §110.5(b)(2)(A)(ii) is appropriately clear.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that student expectation §110.5(b)(8)(A), which requires students to infer theme and distinguish theme from topic, is too difficult for Grade 3. The commenter recommended introducing theme at Grades 3 and 4, and then at Grade 5 students could distinguish between topic and theme.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(8)(A) is appropriately included at Grade 3.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that proposed §110.5(b)(9)(D) regarding characteristics and structures of informational text is difficult for Grade 3 students to master and would be better addressed at Grade 4 or 5.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that proposed §110.5(b)(9)(D) is appropriately included at Grade 3.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(B) regarding how text structure contributes to the author's purpose may not be developmentally appropriate for Grade 3 students.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(B) is appropriately included at Grade 3.

Comment. One teacher questioned whether student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(D) regarding figurative language is developmentally appropriate for Grade 3 students.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(D) is appropriately included at Grade 3.

Comment. Members of a Grade 3 reading team expressed concern regarding the use of the term "central idea" in student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(D)(i) because "main idea" is more commonly used.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the term "central idea" in §110.5(b)(9)(D)(i) is appropriately included.

Comment. One teacher questioned whether the proposed Grade 3 TEKS are developmentally appropriate because they require a lot of abstract thinking.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the TEKS are developmentally appropriate for Grade 3.

Comment. One community member stated that student expectations §110.5(b)(2)(A)(i)-(vii) regarding phonetic knowledge should be removed from the standards because they are low-level subskills and do not help students engage in meaningful reading and writing exercises.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectations §110.5(b)(2)(A)(i)-(vii) regarding phonetic knowledge are appropriately rigorous.

Comment. One community member asked for clarification of the difference between proposed Grade 3 student expectation §110.5(b)(2)(B)(ii)) regarding "spelling homophones" and proposed Grade 4 student expectation §110.6(b)(2)(B)(ii) in Grade 4 regarding "spelling more difficult homophones."

Response. The SBOE agrees that the language in §110.6(b)(2)(B)(ii) was not sufficiently clear. The SBOE took action to amend §110.6(b)(2)(B)(ii) to read "spelling homophones" and to align with §110.5(b)(2)(B)(ii).

Comment. One community member questioned why the proposed TEKS do not include accent shifts for decoding syllable patterns after Grade 3. The commenter recommended extending the instruction at least through Grade 4 since syllable patterns such as poet and duet pivot on the accent.

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested changes and has determined that accent shifts are appropriately placed at Grade 3.

Comment. One university/college staff member recommended deleting student expectations §§110.5(b)(2)(B)(v), 110.6(b)(2)(B)(iv), and 110.7(b)(2)(B)(iv) regarding spelling and syllable division.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectations §§110.5(b)(2)(B)(v), 110.6(b)(2)(B)(iv), and 110.7(b)(2)(B)(iv) are appropriately included.

Comment. One community member asked whether student expectation §110.6(b)(1)(C) can be used when students are speaking for purposes other than giving an opinion such as when giving a presentation.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Student expectation §110.6(b)(1)(C) requires students to express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively. How students are expected to express an option supported by accurate information and applying the required skills, such as by giving a presentation, would be an instructional decision.

Comment. One community member asked whether examples of final stable syllables will be given in student expectation §110.6(b)(2)(A)(ii).

Response. The SBOE has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(2)(A)(ii) is appropriately clear as proposed.

Comment. Members of a Grade 4 reading team stated that the proposed TEKS seem verbose.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the language of the TEKS is appropriate. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to the Grade 4 TEKS to respond to other comments.

Comment. Members of a Grade 4 reading team asked how the proposed TEKS will be tested and whether some of the student expectations will only be expected to be applied in the real world rather than tested.

Response. This comment is outside of the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Members of a Grade 4 reading team inquired about the purpose of including "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" in the knowledge and skills statement at the beginning of each strand.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The introductions of the proposed TEKS state that the four domains of language, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and their application are included in the strands in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to add "and thinking" to the four language domains listed in the knowledge and skills statements for each strand.

Comment. Members of a Grade 4 reading team expressed concern that the average teacher would not know where to begin with the proposed standards.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the proposed TEKS are appropriately clear for the average teacher. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to the proposed TEKS to respond to other comments.

Comment. One university/college staff member recommended deleting student expectations §110.6(b)(2)(B)(vi) and §110.7(b)(2)(B)(vi) regarding spelling words with changes to base words when suffixes are added.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectations §110.6(b)(2)(B)(vi) and §110.7(b)(2)(B)(vi) are appropriately included. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.6(b)(2)(B)(vi) and §110.7(b)(2)(B)(vi) to read "spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Comment. Two teachers stated that the proposed TEKS for Grade 5 seem appropriate for the age and ability of Grade 5 students.

Response. The SBOE agrees and has determined that the proposed Grade 5 TEKS are appropriate for the grade level. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to the proposed Grade 5 TEKS to respond to other comments.

Comment. One community member suggested revising student expectation §110.7(b)(2)(A)(i) to attribute the difference in sounds between /k/ in music to /sh/ in musician to the addition of the final stable syllable rather than the application of phonetic knowledge.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested change is necessary and has determined that the student expectation is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One community member asked whether examples of final stable syllables will be given in student expectation §110.7(b)(2)(B)(i).

Response. The SBOE has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(2)(B)(i) is appropriately clear as proposed.

Comment. One community member asked what is meant by "demonstrate knowledge" in student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(A) and whether it refers to students demonstrating specific knowledge of selections just read, such as by discussing and retelling the stories.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the student expectation lacks clarity. The SBOE took action to amend §110.7(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales."

Comment. One community member recommended moving literary devices in Grades 3-5 from student expectation (10)(E) regarding point of view to (10)(D), which addresses figurative language.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the inclusion of literary devices with point of view in student expectation (10)(E) in Grades 3-5 is appropriate.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that there do not appear to be student expectations for expository writing in the proposed Grade 6 TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectations that require students to compose literary, informational, and argumentative texts and correspondence provide sufficient opportunities for expository writing.

Comment. One teacher stated that student expectation §110.23(b)(2)(B) would be easier to understand if revised to read "use techniques such as compare and/or contrast or cause and/or effect to clarify the meaning of words in context."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the language in student expectation §110.23(b)(2)(B) is appropriately clear.

Comment. One teacher stated that personal narrative should be removed from the proposed revisions for the Grade 8 TEKS and that the focus should be on expository and persuasive writing instead to better prepare students for real-life writing scenarios.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that personal narrative is appropriately included in the Grade 8 TEKS.

Comment. One community member recommended moving literary devices in Grades 6-8 from (9)(E) regarding point of view to (9)(D), which addresses figurative language.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that literary devices are appropriately included in (10)(E) in Grades 6-8.

Comment. One teacher stated that mastery is never accomplished in a school year in a classroom where students are being taught both reading and writing simultaneously.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department stated that there is sufficient time to teach the student expectations under the following knowledge and skills statements in the Foundational Language Skills strand for Grade 6: §110.22(b)(1) regarding oral language, §110.22(b)(2) regarding vocabulary, and §110.22(b)(3) regarding fluency.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. The SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in the Foundational Language Skills strand for Grade 6 were necessary as a result of this feedback. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department expressed concern that there is not sufficient time at Grade 6 for students to master the student expectations in the proposed response strand.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the scope of the TEKS for Grade 6 is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department stated that there is not sufficient time at Grade 6 for students to master §110.22(b)(4).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that §110.22(b)(4) is appropriate in scope for the grade level.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department expressed concern that there is not sufficient time at Grade 6 for students to master the student expectations in the proposed author's craft strand. The commenters stated that the strand would require multiple texts in each genre to be read and analyzed.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the scope of the strand is appropriate for the grade level. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to make additional changes to student expectations in the author's craft strand at Grade 6, including amending the name of the strand to read "author's purpose and craft."

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department stated that student expectations §110.22(b)(5)(C) and (8)(A) in Grade 6 should be mastered at lower grade levels and are not necessary to be included at middle school.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(5)(C) and (8)(A) are appropriately included in Grade 6.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department stated that there is not sufficient time at Grade 6 for students to master the student expectations in the proposed inquiry and research strand.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the scope of the inquiry and research strand in Grade 6 is appropriate. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to make additional changes to student expectations in the inquiry and research strand at Grade 6.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department stated that if writing and reading are taught as separate classes, there is sufficient time to teach §110.22(b)(10) and §110.22(b)(11) in the composition strand at Grade 6.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department commented that there is sufficient time to teach the student expectations under the knowledge and skills statement §110.22(b)(7) at Grade 6.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the scope of the student expectations under §110.22(b)(7) is appropriate for Grade 6. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.22(b)(7)(D) to read "analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development."

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department expressed concern that there is not sufficient time at Grade 6 for students to master student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the scope of §110.22(b)(8)(B) is appropriate for Grade 6.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department stated that there is not sufficient time for students to master all the student expectations at Grade 7.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the scope of student expectations for Grade 7 is appropriate. The SBOE took action to make additional changes to the Grade 7 TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department expressed concern that there is not enough instructional time for students to master the content of the proposed TEKS before the first administration of the STAAR® exam.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the scope of the Grade 7 TEKS is sufficient to be mastered before the STAAR® exam is administered.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department stated that student mastery of the student expectations at Grade 8 under the knowledge and skills statements §110.24(b)(1)-(4) is realistic for a school year.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the scope of student expectations §110.24(b)(1)-(4) is realistic for a school year.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department expressed concern that there is not sufficient time to teach the student expectations under the knowledge and skills statement §110.24(b)(8) in Grade 8 to a level of student mastery.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the scope of student expectations under the knowledge and skills statement §110.24(b)(8) is appropriate for Grade 8. The SBOE took action to make additional changes to student expectations under §110.24(b)(8) in response to other comments.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department stated that student expectations in proposed §110.24(b)(9) in Grade 8 are an expansion of the current standards and there is not sufficient time for students to master the student expectations in a school year.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the scope of student expectations for Grade 8 is appropriate. The SBOE took action to make additional changes to the Grade 8 TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department expressed support for incorporating the use of digital resources with print resources to determine the meaning of words at Grade 8.

Response. The SBOE agrees that using digital resources with print resources to determine the meaning of words is appropriately included at Grade 8.

Comment. A middle school English language arts and reading department stated that comprehension skills are embedded in most of the other strands, but that the level of complexity specifically required by §110.24(b)(5) for Grade 8 would prevent students from mastering these skills.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the level of complexity of §110.24(b)(5) is appropriate for Grade 8.

Comment. A middle school English language arts and reading department stated that student expectation §110.24(b)(6)(H) could be moved from Grade 8 to a high school speech course.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(6)(H) is appropriately included at Grade 8.

Comment. A middle school English language arts and reading department expressed concern that there is insufficient time for students to master the student expectations under §110.24(b)(7) in Grade 8.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that knowledge and skills statement §110.24(b)(5) is appropriate in scope for Grade 8.

Comment. Members of a middle school English language arts and reading department stated that there is not enough time for students to master the current TEKS. The commenters added that this problem will persist with the proposed TEKS and provided an instructional timeline.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the scope of the proposed new TEKS is appropriate. The SBOE made additional changes to the proposed TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that the proposed TEKS are too similar to the current TEKS and there is not enough instructional time for students to master the content.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the proposed new TEKS are appropriately differentiated from the current TEKS and are appropriate in scope. The SBOE made additional changes to the proposed TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that the proposed kindergarten TEKS can be manageably taught within the school year. The commenter added that many of the student expectations are already being taught but they have been clarified and are better organized.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the proposed kindergarten TEKS can be manageably taught within the school year. The SBOE made additional changes to the kindergarten TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that there is not adequate time to teach the number of TEKS in the current Grade 3 TEKS in one school year.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the proposed TEKS can be taught in one school year. The SBOE made additional changes to the proposed Grade 3 TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern that Grades 5 and 8 teachers have difficulty with covering the current TEKS and may continue to have difficulty covering the proposed new TEKS prior to the STAAR® assessment administered for their grade levels.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the scope of the Grade 5 and Grade 8 TEKS is sufficient to be mastered before the STAAR® exam is administered.

Comment. One teacher recommended that the proposed standards be revisited and inspected to ensure that students have enough time to master the skills needed to be successful writers in English.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the proposed writing TEKS can be adequately mastered in one school year. The SBOE made additional changes to the proposed TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that the pacing of the proposed new TEKS is appropriate for one school year.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the pacing of the proposed new TEKS is appropriate for one school year. The SBOE made additional changes to the proposed new TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. One teacher suggested that the TEKS for English language arts should be separated from the TEKS for reading.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the inclusion of English language arts and reading into one set of TEKS for English language arts and reading is appropriate.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the wording and format of the proposed TEKS. The commenter stated that the skills are grouped in a much more sensible way.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the proposed TEKS are appropriately worded and formatted. The SBOE made additional changes to the proposed TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. One teacher requested that the current TEKS be included with the proposed revisions, which are less organized and grouped together with unrelated topics.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the new English language arts and reading TEKS are adequate and appropriately organized. The SBOE also provides the following clarification. The new TEKS are scheduled to be implemented beginning with the 2017-2018 school year and will replace the current TEKS at that time.

Comment. Two teachers asked when the revised TEKS will be implemented.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The SBOE took action to adopt the proposed TEKS for kindergarten-Grade 8 as amended to be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year.

Comment. One teacher stated the TEKS are informative but recommended including more examples.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that additional examples are needed. The SBOE also made additional changes to the TEKS in response to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that the proposed TEKS are too vague compared to the current TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the proposed TEKS are appropriately clear. The SBOE took action to make additional changes based on other comments.

Comment. One teacher asked how one would know which current student expectations match up with the proposed current student expectations.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Additional information and resources related to the new TEKS will be made available prior to implementation of the new TEKS in 2019-2020.

Comment. One teacher and one community member expressed concern that cursive writing is not developmentally appropriate for second graders.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that cursive writing is appropriate for second graders.

Comment. One teacher stated that it is not necessary for Grade 4 students to write legibly in cursive and questioned whether the requirement reflects 21st century learning.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the writing legibly in cursive is appropriately included at Grade 4 and appropriately reflects 21st century learning.

Comment. One community member expressed concern about requiring students to write legibly in cursive in Grades 2-5. The commenter suggested that student expectations for students in kindergarten-Grade 4 be changed to require writing legibly in print. The commenter added that students should learn how to sign their name in cursive in Grade 3 and then be taught keyboarding skills rather than cursive writing.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that cursive writing is appropriately included at Grades 2-5.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the inclusion of handwriting in the standards.

Response. The SBOE agrees that handwriting is appropriately included in the proposed TEKS.

Comment. One administrator expressed support for the student expectation in K-Grade 12 that requires students to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period.

Response. The SBOE agrees that self-selecting text and reading independently for a sustained period are appropriately included in the proposed TEKS for K-12.

Comment. One community member expressed concern with the statements in proposed (a)(2) of the introductions referring to decoding and encoding skills. The commenter stated that the statements are not supported by research and each statement in the TEKS should be substantiated with research citations.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the language about decoding and encoding is appropriately included in the introductions for the elementary grade levels. However, in response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike the language referring to decoding and encoding from the introductions for Grades 6-8 because students rely less on decoding and encoding skills at the middle school grades and instead use more advanced strategies to read and spell.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with the statement in proposed (a)(2) of the introductions that states students should participate in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to daily. The commenter stated that it is a near impossibility to do all of these activities on a daily basis.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the language recommending that students participate in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to daily is appropriately included in the introductions.

Comment. One administrator expressed support for combining and covering multiple genres in one strand. The commenter also expressed concern that dedicating a separate substrand within the multiple genres strand to the literary genre, while combining the other genres in a second substrand, makes it seem that one genre is more important than the others.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the literary elements and genres substrands are appropriately included in the multiple genres strand.

Comment. One administrator expressed support for the integration of all genres in literature, media, and writing in the proposed multiple genres strand for the middle school grades.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the integration of all genres is appropriately included in the multiple genres strand for the middle school grades.

Comment. One administrator suggested adding genre-specific characteristics for fiction (e.g. plot, conflict, and characterization) to student expectation (8)(A) in Grades 6-8, similar to the characteristics that are provided for the student expectations for expository texts in (8)(D)(i)-(iii) and persuasive texts in (8)(E)(i)-(iii) for these grade levels.

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change and has determined that (8)(A) in Grades 6-8 is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One community member asked whether there is a recommendation to introduce or continue final stable syllables (consonant le, -tion, -sion, tient, etc.) for each grade level.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Student expectations related to decoding ad spelling words with final stable syllables are included in the proposed TEKS for Grades 2-5 only.

Comment. One teacher stated that the skills in the response strand seem to overlap with other areas in the proposed TEKS and should be divided among the new strands as appropriate.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the skills in the response strand are appropriately integrated into student expectations under one strand.

Comment. One administrator expressed support for the proposed response strand. The commenter stated that the student expectations in the strand will allow students to have a deeper understanding of genre connections.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the inclusion of the response strand in the proposed TEKS is appropriate and will enable students to have a deeper understanding of genre connections. In response to other comments, the SBOE made additional changes to student expectations in the response strand.

Comment. One individual from out of state asked when the proposed revisions to the Spanish language arts and reading TEKS would be translated into Spanish.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for proposed revisions to the Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The commenter stated that the arrangement of the TEKS and amount of time needed for instruction seem appropriate.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the arrangement and scope of the proposed Spanish language arts and reading is appropriate.

Comment. One teacher stated that the new organization of skills within the foundational language skills and multiple genres strands is confusing and does not lend itself to standards-based grading.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the foundational language skills and multiple genres strands are appropriately clear. The SBOE also provides the following clarification. Appropriate information related to local grading policies are determined at the local level.

Comment. One teacher recommended that the proposed new strands list the main skills first, for example, "Vocabulary - Developing and sustaining foundational language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing." The commenter also suggested condensing the strand titles as follows: Language Skills, Comprehension Skills, Response Skills, Multiple Genres, Author's Craft, Composition, and Inquiry and Research.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the organization and language in the strands is appropriate. The SBOE took action to make additional changes to the strands in response to other comments.

Comment. Members of a Grade 4 reading team inquired about the purpose of the new collaboration and response strands and what the strands mean in the context of teaching English language arts and reading.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The proposal does not include a collaboration strand. Appropriate discussion related to providing instruction in the new TEKS, including the response strand, should occur during curriculum development and professional development.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern that student expectation §110.2(B)(ii) only requires kindergarten students to decode CVCC words but that in order to cement the skill, students need to encode CVCC words as well.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that requiring students to only decode CVCC words is appropriate at kindergarten.

Comment. One teacher stated that the proposed TEKS for kindergarten look great and that the phrase "with adult assistance" that is included with many student expectations is particularly helpful at kindergarten.

Response. The SBOE agrees and has determined that adult assistance is appropriately included at kindergarten.

Comment. One administrator questioned why nursery rhymes have been taken out of the proposed standards for second grade but not replaced with an additional genre.

Response. The SBOE has determined that it is not necessary to include an additional genre in the standards for second grade.

Comment. One administrator recommended introducing subgenres in Grades 3 and 4 to engage students rather than waiting until sixth grade as proposed.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the introduction of subgenres is appropriate at sixth grade as proposed.

Comment. One administrator recommended removing the phrase "literary devices" from Strand 5 for kindergarten-Grade 7 because the student expectation appears to only be about point-of-view.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the phrase "literary devices" is appropriately included in Strand 5 for kindergarten-Grade 7.

Comment. One administrator stated that the examples of sound devices in student expectation §110.7(10)(D) for Grade 5 should have more specificity to be consistent with Grades 3 and 4.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the examples and level of specificity for sound devices in §110.7(10)(D) are appropriate for Grade 5.

Comment. One administrator questioned whether Grades 7 and 8 should include standards for composition mechanics.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that composition mechanics are appropriately included at Grades 7 and 8.

Comment. One administrator suggested reiterating in the composition strand the specific genre characteristics and craft introduced in the reading standards. The commenter stated that it is unclear whether teachers are expected to cross reference the reading standards or if guides exist for teachers to establish a common understanding of the characteristics and craft of personal narratives.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that it is not necessary to reiterate the specific genre characteristics and craft introduced in the reading standards. The SBOE also provides the following clarification. Appropriate information related to providing instruction in the new TEKS should occur during curriculum development and professional development.

Comment. One administrator stated that Grade 3 is the only grade level for which examples of the kind of correspondence students are expected to write is provided but that examples should be provided for all grade levels.

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to add examples of the kind of correspondence students are expected to write to Grades 1 and 2.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended striking proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(iv) because it is duplicative of §110.2(c)(2)(A)(vi).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the inclusion of student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(iv) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(x) to read "segmenting spoken one-syllable words of two to three phonemes into individual phonemes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(x) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(6)(B) to read "provide oral, pictorial, or brief written responses to text."

Response. The SBOE agrees that written responses should be included but disagrees that students' responses should be limited to brief responses. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.2(b)(6)(B) to read "provide an oral, pictorial, or written response to a text."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(6)(C) to read "use text evidence to support responses."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.2(b)(6)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(8)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature across various literary genres."

Response. The SBOE agrees that students should demonstrate knowledge of a variety of literary genres and has determined that providing a list of genres rather than requiring particular genres is appropriate. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.2(b)(8)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(8)(C) to read "identify main characters and dialogue in a play with adult assistance."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.2(b)(8)(C) to read "discuss main characters in a drama."

Comment. One representative from Region 13 and one representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(8)(D)(i) to read "identifying the central or main idea and details with adult assistance."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested language; however, in response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.2(b)(8)(D)(i) to read "the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(8)(D)(ii) to read "using titles and simple graphics to gain information."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.2(b)(8)(D)(ii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(8)(D)(iii) to read "identifying sequential and descriptive organizations with adult assistance."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.2(b)(8)(D)(iii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(1)(D) to read "work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making productive contributions."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(1)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(C)(i) to read "spelling words with closed syllables, open syllables, VCe syllables, vowel teams including vowel digraphs and diphthongs, and r-controlled syllables."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(C)(i) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(E) to read "alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(7)(C) to read "use text evidence to support responses."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(7)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature across various of literary genres."

Response. The SBOE agrees that students should demonstrate knowledge of a variety of literary genres and has determined that providing a list of genres rather than requiring particular genres is appropriate. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.3(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(9)(C) to read "identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, and stage directions with adult assistance."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.3(b)(9)(C) to read "discuss elements of drama such as characters and setting."

Comment. One representative from Region 13 and one representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "identifying the central or main idea and details with adult assistance."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.3(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising student expectation §110.3(b)(9)(D)(ii) to read "using features and graphics to locate and gain information."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(9)(D)(ii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "identifying sequential and descriptive organizations."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.3(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended adding a new student expectation §110.3(b)(11)(D)(x) to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110 to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(1)(D) to read "work collaboratively by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized and making productive contributions, and building on the ideas of others."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.4(b)(1)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(2)(B)(vii) to read "identifying and reading at least 300 high-frequency words from a research-based list."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.4(b)(2)(B)(vii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(2)(D) to read "alphabetize a series of words to the second or third letter."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.4(b)(2)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(7)(C) to read "use text evidence to support responses."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.4(b)(7)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(8)(C) to read "describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.4(b)(8)(C) to read "describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the conflict, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(8)(D) to read "describe the importance of the setting on the plot."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.4(b)(8)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature across various of literary genres."

Response. The SBOE agrees that students should demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics from a variety of literary genres. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.4(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(9)(C) to read "identifying the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, and stage directions."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.4(b)(9)(C) to read "discuss elements of a drama such as characters, dialogue, and setting."

Comment. One representative from Region 13 and one representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "identifying the central or main idea and details."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.4(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(9)(D)(ii) to read "using features and graphics to locate and gain information."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.4(b)(9)(D)(ii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "identifying chronological and cause-effect organizations that are explicitly stated in text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.4(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "organizational patterns such as chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended that the SBOE add a new student expectation as §110.4(b)(11)(D)(x) to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to add new student expectation §110.4(b)(11)(D)(x) to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(1)(D) to read "work collaboratively by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making productive contributions, and building on the ideas of others."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(1)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(2)(A)(vi) to read "decoding words using knowledge of suffixes including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend student expectation §110.5(b)(2)(A)(vi) to read "decoding words using knowledge of suffixes including how they can change base words such as, dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(2)(B)(vii) to read "spelling words using knowledge of suffixes including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(2)(B)(vii) to read "spelling words using knowledge of suffixes including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(2)(C) to read "alphabetize a series of words to the third or fourth letter."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(2)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(3)(D) to read "identify and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homophones, and homographs in a text."

Response. The SBOE agrees. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.5(b)(3)(D) to read "identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homophones, and homographs in a text."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(7)(B) to read "write responses to literary or informational texts that demonstrate understanding."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(7)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(7)(C) to read "use text evidence to support responses."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(7)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(7)(G) to read "discuss specific ideas in texts that are important to the meaning."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(7)(G) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(8)(C) to read "explain plot elements, including the sequence of events, the problem, and the resolution."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.5(b)(8)(C) to read "analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the conflict, and the resolution."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature across various of literary genres."

Response. The SBOE agrees that students should demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics from a variety of literary genres. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.5(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(C) to read "describe the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, stage directions, and scenes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.5(b)(9)(C) to read "discuss elements of a drama such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(D) to read "describe characteristics and structures of informational text, including."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One representative from Region 13 and one representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "determining the central idea and identifying supporting details."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.5(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "the central idea with supporting evidence."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(D)(ii) to read "using features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding of text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.5(b)(9)(D)(ii) to read "features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "explaining cause-effect and problem-solution organizational patterns in text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.5(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "organizational patterns such as cause and effect and problem and solution."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(E) to read "describe characteristics and structures of argumentative text, including."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(9)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(A) to read "explain the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(D) to read "describe how the author's use of imagery, figurative language, and literary devices such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieve specific purposes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(E) to read "identify the use of first-or third-person point of view."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(10)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(11)(B)(i) to read "organizing with purposeful structure, including, when appropriate, an introduction and a conclusion."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.5(b)(11)(B)(i) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended adding a new student expectation as §110.5(b)(11)(D)(xi) to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to add new §110.5(b)(11)(D)(xi) to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended adding the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft" proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(12)(A) to read "compose literary texts, including personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.5(b)(12)(A) to read "compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry, using genre characteristics and craft."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(12)(B) to read "compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea, genre characteristics, and craft."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.5(b)(12)(B) to read "compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(1)(C) to read "speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contract, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate effectively."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(1)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(1)(D) to read "work collaboratively with others by developing a plan of shared responsibilities, listening attentively, and making productive contributions."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(1)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(2)(A)(v) to read "decoding words using knowledge of suffixes including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.6(b)(2)(A)(v) to read "decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(2)(B)(ii) to read "spelling homophones."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.6(b)(2)(B)(ii) to read "spelling homophones."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(2)(B)(vi) to read "decoding words using knowledge of suffixes including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.6(b)(2)(B)(vi) to read "decoding words using knowledge of suffixes including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(7)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.6(b)(7)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(8)(C) to read "explain plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(8)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature across various of literary genres."

Response. The SBOE agrees that students should demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics from a variety of literary genres. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.6(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(B) to read "explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(C) to read "describe the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, stage directions, acts, and scenes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.6(b)(9)(C) to read "explain the structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(D) to read "describe characteristics and structures of informational text, including."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One representative from Region 13 and one representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "determining the central idea and explaining supporting details."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.6(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "the central idea with supporting evidence."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(D)(ii) to read "using pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding of text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.6(b)(9)(D)(ii) to read "features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "explaining compare and contrast organizational patterns in text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.6(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "organizational patterns such as compare and contrast."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(E) to read "describe characteristics and structures of argumentative text, including."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(9)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(10)(A) to read "explain the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(10)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(10)(D) to read "describe how the author's use of imagery, figurative language, and literary devices such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration, consonance, and assonance achieve specific purposes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(10)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(10)(E) to read "identify and understand the use of first- or third-person point of view."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(10)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(11)(B)(i) to read "organizing with purposeful structure, including when appropriate, and introduction, transitions, and a conclusion."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.6(b)(11)(B)(i) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(11)(D)(i) to read "complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.6(b)(11)(D)(i) to read "complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended adding a new student expectation as §110.6(b)(11)(D)(xi) to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.6(b)(11)(D)(xi) to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(12)(A) to read "compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.6(b)(12)(A) to read "compose literary texts such as personal narratives and poetry using genre characteristics and craft."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(12)(B) to read "compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a central idea, genre characteristics, and craft."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.6(b)(12)(B) to read "compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a central idea and genre characteristics, and craft."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(1)(C) to read "deliver an organized presentation employing eye contract, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(1)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(1)(D) to read "work collaboratively with others by developing a plan of shared responsibilities, listening attentively, and making productive contributions."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(1)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(2)(A)(i) to read "decoding consonant changes, including /t/ to /sh/ such as in select and selection and /k/ to /sh/ such as music to musician."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.7(b)(2)(A)(i) to read "decoding consonant changes, including /t/ to /sh/ such as in select and selection and /k/ to /sh/ such as music to musician."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(2)(B)(ii) to read "decoding consonant changes, including /t/ to /sh/ such as in select and selection and /k/ to /sh/ such as music to musician."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.7(b)(2)(B)(ii) to read "decoding consonant changes, including /t/ to /sh/ such as in select and selection and /k/ to /sh/ such as music to musician."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(2)(B)(vi) to read "spelling words using knowledge of suffixes including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.7(b)(2)(B)(vi) to read "spelling words using knowledge of suffixes including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(7)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources."

Response. The SBOE agrees. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.7(b)(7)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(7)(C) to read "use text evidence to support responses."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(7)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature across various of literary genres."

Response. The SBOE agrees that students should demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics from a variety of literary genres. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.7(b)(9)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(B) to read "explain the use of sound devices, rhyme scheme, and structural elements such as line breaks and distinguish between the poet and speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(C) to read "describe the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, stage directions, acts, and scenes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.7(b)(9)(C) to read "explain the structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(D) to read "describe characteristics and structures of informational text, including."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One representative from Region 13 and one representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "determining the central idea and explaining supporting details."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.7(b)(9)(D)(i) to read "the central idea with supporting evidence."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(D)(ii) to read "using features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding of text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the specific change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.7(b)(9)(D)(ii) to read "features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "explaining logical order and order of importance organizational patterns in text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the specific change. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.7(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "organizational patterns such as logical order and order of importance."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(E) to read "describe characteristics and structures of argumentative text, including."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(9)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(10)(A) to read "explain the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(10)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(10)(D) to read "describe how the author's use of imagery, figurative language, and literary devices such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration, consonance, and assonance achieve specific purposes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(10)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(10)(E) to read "identify and understand the use of first- or third-person point of view."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(10)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(10)(G) to read "identify and explain the use of hyperbole and stereotyping."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.7(b)(10)(G) to read "explain the purpose of hyperbole, stereotyping, and anecdote."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(11)(B)(i) to read "organizing with purposeful structure, including when appropriate, and introduction, transitions, and a conclusion."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.7(b)(11)(B)(i) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(11)(D)(i) to read "complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.7(b)(11)(D)(i) to read "complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended adding a new student expectation as §110.7(b)(11)(D)(xi) to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to add new student expectation §110.7(b)(11)(D)(xi) to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(12)(A) to read "compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.7(b)(12)(A) to read "compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.7(b)(12)(B) to read "compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a central idea, genre characteristics, and craft."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend student expectation §110.7(b)(12)(B) to read " compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(1)(C) to read "deliver an organized presentation employing eye contract, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(1)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(2)(B) to read "use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(2)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(6)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding including comparing and contrasting sources within and across genres."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action amend §110.23(b)(6)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting sources within and across genres."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(6)(C) to read "use accurate text evidence to support responses."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(6)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(7)(B) to read "analyze how the characters' internal and external responses influence the plot."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(7)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(7)(D) to read "analyze the influence of setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot and characters."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.22(b)(7)(D) to read "analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics across various genres."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(B) to read "analyze the effects of sound devices, rhyme scheme, meter, and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(C) to read "analyze the elements of a play, including acts, scenes, stage directions, and dialogue."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.22(b)(8)(C) to read "analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(D) to read "analyze characteristics and structures of informational text, including."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the specific change. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.22(b)(8)(D) to read "analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(D)(i) to read "determining the controlling idea and analyzing supporting evidence."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the specific change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.22(b)(8)(D)(i) to read "the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(D)(ii) to read "using features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information and to support understanding."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.22(b)(8)(D)(ii) to read "features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(D)(iii) to read "analyzing how organizational patterns such as definition, classification, and advantage-disadvantage develop the thesis."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(D)(iii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(8)(E) to read "analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text, including."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the specific change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.22(b)(8)(E) to read "analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(9)(A) to read "explain the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(9)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(9)(D) to read "describe how the author's use of figurative language and literary devices such as simile and personification achieve specific purposes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(9)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(9)(E) to read "identify the use of omniscient and limited point of view to achieve a specific purpose."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.22(b)(9)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(9)(G) to read "identify and explain the use of hyperbole and sarcasm in text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.22(b)(9)(G) to read "explain the differences between rhetorical devices and logical fallacies."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(10)(B)(i) to read "organizing with purposeful structure, including when appropriate, and introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.22(b)(10)(B)(i) to read "organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(10)(D)(i) to read "complete compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.22(b)(10)(D)(i) to read "complete compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.22(b)(11)(C) to read "compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.22(b)(11)(C) to read "compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(1)(C) to read "deliver an organized presentation employing eye contract, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(1)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(1)(D) to read "engage in meaningful discussion by providing and accepting constructive feedback, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement, and disagreement."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(1)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(2)(B) to read "use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(2)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(6)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding including comparing sources within and across genres."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.23(b)(6)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(6)(C) to read "use accurate text evidence to support responses."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(6)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(7)(B) to read "analyze how the characters' motivations and behaviors influence plot elements."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(7)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(7)(C) to read "analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing, to advance the plot."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(7)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics across various literary genres."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(B) to read "analyze the effects of rhyme scheme, meter, structural elements, and graphical elements such as punctuation, capitalization, line length, and word position in poems across a variety of poetic forms."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(C) to read "analyze how playwright(s) develop characters and dramatic action through the dialogue, stage direction, acts, and scenes in plays."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the specific change. In response to this and other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.23(b)(8)(C) to read "analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(D) by replacing the word "recognize" with "analyze" to read "analyze characteristics and structures of informational text, including."

Response. The SBOE agrees. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.23(b)(8)(D) to read "analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(D)(i) to read "determining the controlling idea or thesis and analyzing supporting evidence."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.23(b)(8)(D)(i) to read "the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(D)(ii) to read "using footnotes, endnotes, and citations to gain additional information and to support understanding."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.23(b)(8)(D)(ii) to read "features such as references or acknowledgements."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(D)(iii) to read "analyzing how multiple organizational patterns within a text develop the thesis."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(D)(iii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(E) to read "analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text, including."

Response. The SBOW agrees and took action to amend §110.23(b)(8)(E) to read "analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text, including."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(E)(ii) to read "explain how the author uses various types of evidence and addresses counter arguments."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(8)(E)(ii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(9)(A) to read "explain the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(9)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(9)(D) to read "describe how the author's use of figurative language and literary devices such as metaphor and personification achieve specific purposes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(9)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(9)(E) to read "identify the use of subjective and objective point of view to achieve a specific purpose."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.23(b)(9)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(9)(G) to read "identify and explain the use of rhetorical devices and logical fallacies such as loaded language, strawman, and ad hominem arguments."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.23(b)(9)(G) to read "explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(10)(B)(i) to read "organizing with purposeful structure, including when appropriate, and introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.23(b)(10)(B)(i) to read "organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(10)(D)(i) to read "complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.23(b)(10)(D)(i) to read "complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.23(b)(11)(C) to read "compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.23(b)(11)(C) to read "compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(1)(A) to read "listen actively to interpret a message, summarize ideas, ask questions, and make pertinent comments."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(1)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(1)(C) to read "deliver an organized presentation employing eye contract, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(1)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(1)(D) to read "engage in meaningful discussions by providing and accepting constructive feedback, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement, and disagreement."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(1)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(6)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding including comparing sources within and across genres."

Response. The SBOE agrees. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.24(b)(6)(B) to read "write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(6)(C) to read "use accurate and relevant text evidence and commentary to support responses."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(6)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(7)(B) to read "analyze how the characters' motivations and behaviors influence plot elements."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(7)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(7)(C) to read "analyze plot elements such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and how they advance the plot."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(7)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(7)(D) to read "analyze how the setting influences characters and plot development."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(7)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(A) to read "demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics across various literary genres."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(B) to read "analyze the effects of rhyme scheme, meter, structural elements, and graphical elements such as punctuation and line length, and word position in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(C) to read "analyze how playwright(s) develop characters and dramatic action through the dialogue, stage direction, acts, and scenes in plays."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.23(b)(8)(C) to read "analyze how playwrights develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(D) by replacing the verb "recognize" with the verb "analyze" to read "analyze characteristics and structures of informational text, including."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.24(b)(8)(D) to read "analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(D)(i) to read "determining the controlling idea or thesis and analyzing supporting evidence."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the specific change. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.24(b)(8)(D)(i) to read "the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(D)(ii) to read "using graphic and text features to gain additional information and to support understanding."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.23(b)(8)(D)(ii) to read "features such as footnotes, endnotes, and citations."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(D)(iii) to read "analyzing how multiple organizational patterns within a text develop the thesis."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(D)(iii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(E) to read "analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text, including."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.24(b)(8)(E) to read "analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:".

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(E)(i) to read "identifying the claim."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(E)(i) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(E)(ii) to read "explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and addresses counter arguments."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(8)(E)(ii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(9)(A) to read "analyze the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(9)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(9)(D) to read "describe how the author's use of figurative language and literary devices such as metaphor and irony achieve specific purposes."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(9)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(9)(E) to read "identify the use of multiple points of view to achieve a specific purpose."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.24(b)(9)(E) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(9)(G) to read "identify and explain the use of rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and sweeping generalizations."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.23(b)(9)(G) to read "explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as analogy and juxtaposition and of logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and circular reasoning."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(10)(B)(i) to read "organizing with purposeful structure, including, when appropriate, an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.24(b)(10)(B)(i) to read "organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(10)(D)(i) to read "complete complex and compound-complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.24(b)(10)(D)(i) to read "complete complex and compound-complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments."

Comment. A representative from Region 13 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.24(b)(11)(C) to read "compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.24(b)(11)(C) to read "compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft."

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(A) to include the student expectations from §110.2(b)(2)(A)(v)-(vii).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(x) to include two-three examples of phonemes.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.2(b)(2)(A)(x) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(2)(B)(vii) to read "identifying and reading 300 high-frequency words."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.4(b)(2)(B)(vii) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(C)(i) by adding "diphthongs and digraphs."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(2)(C)(i) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.6(b)(2)(B)(ii) to strike the words "more difficult."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend student expectation §110.6(b)(2)(B)(ii) to read "spelling homophones."

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.4(b)(2)(D) to read "alphabetize a series of words to the second or third letter and use a dictionary or glossary to find words. "

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.4(b)(2)(D) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended adding "homophones" to proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(3)(D).

Response. The SBOE agrees. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.5(b)(3)(D) to read "identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homophones, and homographs in a text."

Comment: Region 18 asked whether "paraphrase" is replacing "summarize" in proposed student expectation §110.5(b)(7)(D).

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The SBOE has determined that the verb "summarize" is appropriately included in student expectation §110.5(b)(7)(D).

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended adding that students identify dialogue to proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(9)(C).

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.3(b)(9)(C) to read "discuss elements of drama such as characters and setting."

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed student expectation §110.3(b)(9)(D)(iii) to eliminate the word "temporal."

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to amend §110.3(b)(9)(D)(iii) to read "organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance."

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended adding a new student expectation to the Composition strand under §§110.2(b)(10)(D), 110.3(b)(11)(D), 110.4(b)(11)(D), 110.5(b)(11)(D), 110.6(b)(11)(D) and 110.7(b)(11)(D) to read "spelling of high frequency words."

Response. The SBOE agrees. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to add new §§110.2(b)(10)(D)(ix), 110.3(b)(11)(D)(x), 110.4(b)(11)(D)(xi), 110.5(b)(11)(D)(xi), 110.6(b)(11)(D)(xi), and 110.7(b)(11)(D)(xi), to read "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words."

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed §110.3(b)(12)(A) to read "compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(12)(A) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed §110.3(b)(12)(B) to read "compose informational texts, including procedural texts."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that student expectation §110.3(b)(12)(B) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from Region 18 recommended revising proposed §110.3(b)(12)(C) to read "compose correspondence."

Response. The SBOE disagrees with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §110.3(b)(12)(C) to read "dictate or compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters."

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§110.1 - 110.7

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are adopted under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§110.2.English Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively and ask questions to understand information and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) restate and follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) identifying and producing rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

(iv) identifying syllables in spoken words;

(v) blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

(vii) blending spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words;

(viii) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words;

(ix) manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word; and

(x) segmenting spoken one-syllable words into individual phonemes;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

(ii) using letter-sound relationships to decode, including VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words;

(iii) recognizing that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted such as it - pit - tip - tap; and

(iv) identifying and reading at least 25 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with VC, CVC, and CCVC;

(ii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iii) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by:

(i) identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

(ii) holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

(iii) recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

(iv) recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

(v) identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

(C) identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) provide an oral, pictorial, or written response to a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) identify and describe the main character(s);

(C) describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution for texts read aloud with adult assistance; and

(D) describe the setting.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems;

(C) discuss main characters in drama;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) titles and simple graphics to gain information; and

(iii) the steps in a sequence with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss with adult assistance the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts with adult assistance using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences;

(ii) verbs;

(iii) singular and plural nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) prepositions;

(vi) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(vii) capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and name;

(viii) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and

(ix) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) share writing.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and

(B) dictate or compose informational texts.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.3.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself and others, relating experiences to a classmate, and expressing needs and feelings.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable words;

(iv) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed;

(v) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words, including initial and/or final consonant blends;

(vi) manipulating phonemes within base words; and

(vii) segmenting spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes, including words with initial and/or final consonant blends;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words in isolation and in context by applying common letter sound correspondences;

(ii) decoding words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii) decoding words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including vowel digraphs and diphthongs; and r-controlled syllables;

(iv) using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words and contractions;

(v) decoding words with inflectional endings, including -ed, -s, and -es; and

(vi) identifying and reading at least 100 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with closed syllables, open syllables, VCe syllables, vowel teams, and r-controlled syllables;

(ii) spelling words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iv) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and

(F) develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings;

(C) identify the meaning of words with the affixes -s, -ed, and -ing; and

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, categories, and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character(s) and the reason(s) for their actions;

(C) describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and alliteration in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and simple graphics to locate or gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as by drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past and present verb tense;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions;

(vii) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(viii) capitalization for the beginning of sentences and the pronoun "I";

(ix) punctuation marks at the end of declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences; and

(x) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words with adult assistance; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) dictate or compose informational texts, including procedural texts; and

(C) dictate or compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.4.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others; and

(E) develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable and multi-syllable words;

(iii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed; and

(iv) manipulating phonemes within base words;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with short, long, or variant vowels, trigraphs, and blends;

(ii) decoding words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iv) decoding compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi) decoding words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est; and

(vii) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling one-syllable and multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii) spelling compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns, including words with double consonants in the middle of the word; and

(vi) spelling words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est;

(D) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes un-, re-, -ly, -er, and -est (comparative and superlative), and -ion/tion/sion; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character's (characters') internal and external traits;

(C) describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the conflict, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the importance of the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;

(B) explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and graphics to locate and gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including:

(i) stating what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;

(E) identify the use of first or third person in a text; and

(F) identify and explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts into a focused piece of writingby:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verb tense;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey place;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects and predicates;

(ix) capitalization of months, days of the week, and the salutation and conclusion of a letter;

(x) end punctuation, apostrophes in contractions, and commas with items in a series and in dates; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports; and

(C) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) cite sources appropriately; and

(G) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.5.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules, norms, and protocols; and

(E) develop social communication such as conversing politely in all situations.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns such as eigh, ough, and en;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv) decoding words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV with accent shifts;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(vi) decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vii) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling homophones;

(iii) spelling compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vii) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants;

(C) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter; and

(D) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly in cursive leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes such as im- (into), non-, dis-, in- (not, non), pre-, -ness, -y, and -ful; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homophones, and homographs in a text.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to a literary or informational text that demonstrates an understanding of a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer the theme of a work, distinguishing theme from topic;

(B) explain the relationships among the major and minor characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the conflict, and the resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths;

(B) explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as cause and effect and problem and solution;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) explain the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of hyperbole.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verb tense;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey manner;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of official titles of people, holidays, and geographical names and places;

(x) punctuation marks, including apostrophes in contractions and possessives and commas in compound sentences and items in a series; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry, using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) create a works cited page; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.6.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with specific orthographic patterns and rules, including regular and irregular plurals;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VV;

(iv) decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vi) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling homophones;

(iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv) spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C) write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) determine the meaning of and use words with affixes such as mis-, sub-, -ment, and -ity/ty and roots such as auto, graph, and meter; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of homophones such as reign/rain.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer basic themes supported by text evidence;

(B) explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as compare and contrast;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) past tense of irregular verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and adverbs that convey degree;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including reflexive;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of historical periods, events, and documents; titles of books; stories and essays; and languages, races, and nationalities;

(x) punctuation marks, including apostrophes in possessives, commas in compound sentences, and quotation marks in dialogue; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.7.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret verbal and non-verbal messages, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with consonant changes, including/t/ to/sh/ such as in select and selection and/k/ to/sh/ such as music and musician;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllable; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(iv) decoding words using advanced knowledge of the influence of prefixes and suffixes on base words; and

(v) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling words with consonant changes, including/t/ to/sh/ such as in select and selection and/k/ to/sh/ such as music and musician;

(iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv) spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, and word origin;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes such as trans-, super-, -ive, and -logy and roots such as geo and photo; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of adages and puns.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within a text using text evidence;

(B) analyze the relationships of and conflicts among the characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) analyze the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain the use of sound devices and figurative language and distinguish between the poet and the speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as logical order and order of importance;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for or against an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) examine how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the purpose of hyperbole, stereotyping, and anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) past tense of irregular verbs;

(iii) collective nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) conjunctive adverbs;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vii) pronouns, including indefinite;

(viii) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(ix) capitalization of abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in compound and complex sentences, quotation marks in dialogue, and italics and underlining for titles and emphasis; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) understand credibility of primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on September 5, 2017.

TRD-201703516

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: September 25, 2017

Proposal publication date: March 3, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§110.21 - 110.24

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are adopted under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§110.22.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;

(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as mis/mit, bene, man, vac, scrib/script, and jur/jus.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback; and

(D) analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;

(B) analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument;

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice; and

(G) explain the differences between rhetorical devices and logical fallacies.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronouns, including relative;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(vii) capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(viii) punctuation marks, including commas in complex sentences, transitions, and introductory elements; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.23.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others' ideas;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how characters' qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense, to advance the plot; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;

(B) analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as references or acknowledgements; and

(iii) organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including subjective and objective point of view;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas to set off words, phrases, and clauses, and semicolons; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.24.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message by summarizing, asking questions, and making comments;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as ast, qui, path, mand/mend, and duc.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how themes are developed through the interaction of characters and events;

(B) analyze how characters' motivations and behaviors influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) explain how the setting influences the values and beliefs of characters.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, fantasy, science fiction, and short stories;

(B) analyze the effect of graphical elements such as punctuation and line length in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as footnotes, endnotes, and citations; and

(iii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim and analyzing the argument;

(ii) identifying and explaining the counter argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as extended metaphor achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and analyze the use of literary devices, including multiple points of view and irony;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to the mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as analogy and juxtaposition and of logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and circular reasoning.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses and active and passive voice;

(iii) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(iv) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(v) correct capitalization;

(vi) punctuation, including commas in nonrestrictive phrases and clauses, semicolons, colons, and parentheses; and

(vii) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as bandwagon appeals, repetition, and loaded language;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on September 5, 2017.

TRD-201703518

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: September 25, 2017

Proposal publication date: March 3, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 112. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SCIENCE

The State Board of Education (SBOE) adopts amendments to §§112.10-112.20, 112.31, 112.34, 112.35, 112.38, and 112.39, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for science. The amendments are adopted with changes to the proposed text as published in the March 3, 2017 issue of the Texas Register (42 TexReg 887). The adopted amendments streamline the TEKS for science with an implementation date of the 2018-2019 school year.

REASONED JUSTIFICATION. Applications for appointment to science TEKS streamlining committees were accepted by the Texas Education Agency from February 4, 2016, through March 14, 2016. The applications received were provided to SBOE members at the April 2016 meeting, and nominations for science TEKS streamlining committees were made in summer 2016. Committee members were notified of the appointment in June 2016.

Science TEKS streamlining committee members participated in a training webinar in July 2016 in preparation for the first face-to-face meeting. Also in July 2016, the science TEKS streamlining committees convened in Austin to begin work on draft recommendations for the TEKS. The committees convened again in September 2016 to complete their initial draft recommendations.

In October 2016, the committee draft recommendations were provided to the board and posted to the TEA website for informal public feedback. In accordance with the board's TEKS streamlining process, one member of each TEKS review committee presented invited testimony at the November 2016 meeting. The science TEKS streamlining committees convened for a third time in January 2017 in order to review feedback and finalize their recommendations.

The amendments were approved by the SBOE for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017 meeting and for second reading and final adoption at its April 21, 2017 meeting. The effective date of the amendments is August 27, 2018.

The following changes were made to the adopted amendments to 19 TAC Chapter 112, Subchapters A-C, since published as proposed.

§112.10, Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Elementary, Adopted 2017

The implementation of the revised TEKS for science was changed to the 2018-2019 school year.

§112.11, Science, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1)(A) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "creating a method to answer those questions, answering those questions" to the description of the central themes of the grade level.

The physical properties of matter in subsection (a)(1)(B) of the introduction were amended to add the word "weight" and to change "heat" to "thermal."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(4)(A) was amended to change "computers" to "computing devices" in the list of tools that students are expected to use.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(A) was amended to change "heat" to "thermal."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to eliminate references to once-living things.

§112.12, Science, Grade 1, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1)(A) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "creating a method to answer those questions, answering those questions" to the description of the central themes of the grade level. In addition, a clarification was made that simple observations are used in descriptive investigations.

The physical properties of matter in subsection (a)(1)(B) of the introduction were amended to add the word "weight" and to change "heat" to "thermal."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(5)(A) was amended to strike the phrase "and the materials from which they are made."

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(5)(C) was added to read, "classify objects by the materials from which they are made."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(A) was amended to change "heat" to "thermal."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(C) was amended to add "such as in a straight line, zig zag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to eliminate references to once-living things.

§112.13, Science, Grade 2, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1)(A) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "creating a method to answer questions, answering those questions" to the description of the central themes of the grade level. In addition, a clarification was made that simple observations are used in descriptive investigations.

Subsection (a)(1)(B) of the introduction was amended to add "shape" to the examples of the properties of objects in the physical environment.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(4)(A) was amended to strike primary balances from the list of tools that students are expected to use.

§112.14, Science, Grade 3, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(4) of the introduction was amended to change "scientific methods" to "scientific practices."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(2) was amended to change "scientific inquiry methods" to "scientific practices."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(4) was amended to strike microscopes from the list of tools that students are expected to use.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(5)(C) was amended to add "liquid water being heated to the point of becoming water vapor" to the examples of changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(B) was amended to change "heat" to "thermal."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(B) was amended to change "lady bugs" to "lady beetles."

§112.15, Science, Grade 4, Adopted 2017

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(2) was amended to change "scientific inquiry methods" to "scientific practices."

§112.16, Science, Grade 5, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was amended to add the word "scientific" to describe investigations.

Subsection (a)(1)(A) of the introduction was amended to add mass to the list of physical properties of matter.

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(2) was amended to change "scientific methods" to "scientific practices."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(5)(B) was amended to change "iron filings and sand or sand and water" to "iron filings and sand and sand and water."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(5)(C) was amended to read, "identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to eliminate references to once-living things and to change "nonliving elements" to "nonliving components."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(A) was amended to add the phrase "in a specific environment" after the word "survive."

§112.17, Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Middle School, Adopted 2017

The implementation of the revised TEKS for science was changed to the 2018-2019 school year.

§112.18, Science, Grade 6, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1)(B)(iii) of the introduction was amended to replace the phrase "renewable, nonrenewable, or indefinite basis" with the phrase "renewable or nonrenewable basis."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(2) was amended to change "scientific inquiry methods" to "scientific practices."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(A) was amended to strike the phrases "in all fields of science" and "including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations" in order to align with the language in the same student expectation in other grade levels.

§112.19, Science, Grade 7, Adopted 2017

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(2) was amended to change "scientific inquiry methods" to "scientific practices."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(A) was amended to strike the phrases "in all fields of science" and "including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations" in order to align with the language in the same student expectation in other grade levels.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6) was amended to strike the phrase "in the digestive system."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(A) was amended to remove reference to heat energy and strike the words "in digestion."

§112.20, Science, Grade 8, Adopted 2017

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(2) was amended to change "scientific inquiry methods" to "scientific practices."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(A) was amended to strike the phrases "in all fields of science" and "including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations" in order to align with the language in the same student expectation in other grade levels.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(A) was amended to correct the spelling of Hertzsprung-Russell.

§112.31, Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School, Adopted 2017

The implementation of the revised TEKS for science was changed to the 2018-2019 school year.

§112.34, Biology (One Credit), Adopted 2017

Subsection (b)(1) of the introduction and the knowledge and skill statement in subsection (c)(2) were amended to change "scientific methods" to "scientific practices."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(4)(A) was amended to add the phrase "including their complexity" after the phrase "prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells" and to replace the phrase "evaluate scientific explanations for their complexity" with the phrase "compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(6)(A) was amended to replace the word "describe" with the word "identify" and to replace the word "evaluate" with the word "examine."

§112.35, Chemistry (One Credit), Adopted 2017

Subsection (b)(1) and (3) of the introduction and the knowledge and skill statement in subsection (c)(2) were amended to change "scientific methods" to "scientific practices."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(3)(A) was amended to add the phrase "so as to encourage critical thinking by the student" in order to align with the language in the same student expectation in other grade levels.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(8)(F) was amended to delete the phrase "ion swap."

§112.38, Integrated Physics and Chemistry (One Credit), Adopted 2017

Subsection (b)(1) of the introduction and the knowledge and skill statement in subsection (c)(2) were amended to change "scientific methods" to "scientific practices."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(3)(A) was amended to add the phrase "so as to encourage critical thinking by the student" in order to align with the language in the same student expectation in other grade levels.

§112.39, Physics (One Credit), Adopted 2017

Subsection (b)(1) of the introduction was amended to change "scientific methods" to "scientific practices."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(2)(D) was amended to add the word "hypotheses" after the phrase "formulating testable."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(3)(A) was amended to add the phrase "so as to encourage critical thinking by the student" in order to align with the language in the same student expectation in other grade levels.

SUMMARY OF COMMENTS AND RESPONSES. Following is a summary of the public comments received and the corresponding responses regarding the proposed amendments to 19 TAC Chapter 112, Subchapters A-C.

Comment. A representative from education service center (ESC) 13 expressed support for the proposed edits to §112.11(b)(2)(C).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher questioned whether "safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate" should be added to §112.11(b)(4)(A).

Response. The SBOE determined that safety goggles or chemical splash goggles were not appropriate at the kindergarten level and, therefore, should not be added to §112.11(b)(4)(A). In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.11(b)(4)(A) to read, "collect information using tools, including computing devices, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices; non-standard measuring items; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums."

Comment. ESC 13 and two teachers stated that the addition of "once-living" to §112.11(b)(9)(A) creates additional content.

Response. The SBOE agreed and took action to amend §112.11(b)(9)(A) to read, "differentiate between living and nonliving things based upon whether they have basic needs and produce offspring."

Comment. One teacher stated that kindergarten teachers need 45 minutes to teach science.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. The SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in kindergarten were necessary as a result of this feedback. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the first sentence in §112.12(a)(1)(A) should use language in similar paragraphs for kindergarten and Grade 2.

Response. The SBOE disagreed. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.12(a)(1)(A) to read, "A central theme in first grade science is active engagement in asking questions, creating a method to answer those questions, answering those questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools in order to explain scientific concepts and processes like scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations used in descriptive investigations."

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed support for the proposed edits to §112.12(b)(2)(C).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. Two teachers and a representative from ESC 13 stated that the addition of "once-living" in §112.12(b)(9)(A) creates additional content.

Response. The SBOE agreed and took action to amend §112.12(b)(9)(A) to read, "sort and classify living and nonliving things based upon whether they have basic needs and produce offspring."

Comment. One teacher and one administrator recommended deleting chicken from the examples of life cycles in the proposed student expectation in §112.12(b)(10)(D) and cited possible health concerns such as salmonella.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the life cycle of a chicken is appropriately included as an example and is not required to be taught.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with proposed edits to the student expectation in §112.13(b)(5)(A) and the removal of "relative mass." The commenter proposed leaving relative mass or modifying the wording to include heavier and lighter and adding a reference to mass in Grade 2 since mass is found in all other grade levels.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with the proposed removal of portions of the introduction in Grade 2.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The changes to the introduction to the Grade 2 TEKS as adopted did not eliminate any current language. Changes were only made to reorder the paragraphs to align with other grade levels.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed support to the proposed edits for §112.13(b)(2)(C).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with the proposed deletion of §112.13(b)(5)(A).

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The student expectation in §112.13(b)(5)(A) was not proposed for deletion. The SBOE determined that the elimination of shape and relative mass in the student expectation were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher and one administrator suggested deleting the phrase "over time" in the proposed student expectation in §112.13(b)(6)(C) related to patterns of movement of objects.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Two teachers and one administrator expressed concern with the deletion of §112.13(b)(8)(C) related to the water cycle.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the water cycle is sufficiently addressed in other grade levels.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that clarifying examples be included for objects in the proposed new student expectation in §112.13(b)(8)(C).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriately clear as proposed.

Comment. One teacher and one administrator suggested replacing "through food chains" with "within food chains" in the proposed student expectation in §112.13(b)(9)(C).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested changing the word "described" to "outlined" in §112.14(b)(1)(A) to align with language used in Grade 5.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator suggested adding the word "descriptive" to "outdoor investigations" in §112.14(b)(2) and §112.15(b)(2) to provide guidance for teachers.

Response. The SBOE disagreed. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.14(b)(2) and §112.15(b)(2) to read, "Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations."

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested deleting the word "measured" from §112.14(b)(2)(C).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the student expectations in §112.14(b)(3)(A), §112.15(b)(3)(A), and §112.16(b)(3)(A) be changed to read, "analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using evidence, logical reasoning, and observational investigations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with the proposed removal of certain tools in the student expectation in §112.14(b)(4)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the elimination of certain tools in §112.14(b)(4)(A) was appropriate as proposed. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.14(b)(4)(A) to read, "collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, wind vanes, rain gauges, pan balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, spring scales, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and Sun, Earth, and Moon system models; timing devices; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums."

Comment. One teacher and one administrator expressed concern with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.14(b)(7)(C) related to landforms.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.14(b)(7)(C) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 3 and were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with changes to §112.14(b)(8)(B) related to the water cycle.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the change related to the water cycle was appropriate. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.14(b)(8)(B) to read, "describe and illustrate the Sun as a star composed of gases that provides light and thermal energy."

Comment. One university/college staff member expressed concern with the proposed deletion of language in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.14(b)(9) and the student expectation in §112.14(b)(10)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of language in §112.14(b)(9) and §112.14(b)(10)(B) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 3 and were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested changing "described" to "outlined" and deleting the phrase "as appropriate" after the word "gloves" in §112.15(b)(1)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested changing "perform" to "demonstrate that" in §112.15(b)(2)(E).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with proposed removal of certain tools in §112.15(b)(4)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the elimination of certain tools in the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.15(b)(5)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.15(b)(5)(B) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 4 and were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed concern that the addition of language to §112.15(b)(6)(B) may add instructional time.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the proposed changes to the student expectation were intended to clarify and not to require additional instruction.

Comment. One teacher, two administrators, and a representative from ESC 13 expressed concern about the language proposed for deletion in §112.15(b)(8)(A) and suggested retaining the language in the current student expectation.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One university/college staff member expressed concern with the proposed removal in §112.15(b)(10)(A) of the word "adaptation" and the proposed rewording of §112.15(b)(10)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 recommended rewording the first sentence in §112.16(a)(1)(B) to read, "Within the natural environment, students learn how changes occur on Earth's surface and that predictable patterns occur in the sky."

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The first sentence in §112.16(a)(1)(B) as proposed is identical to the commenter's suggestion.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested deleting "as appropriate" after "gloves" in §112.16(b)(1)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator suggested changing "experimental investigation testing one variable" to "correlational investigation to test the effects of varying forces on an object" in §112.16(b)(2)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested changing "information" to "data" in §112.16(b)(2)(G).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with the proposed deletion of certain tools in the student expectation in §112.16(b)(4)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the list of tools in the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher recommended dividing the proposed student expectation in §112.16(b)(5)(A) into multiple student expectations since it covers many properties.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher and one administrator expressed concern with inclusion of sand and water as an example of a mixture in the proposed student expectation in §112.16(b)(5)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the example was appropriate. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.16(b)(5)(B) to read, "demonstrate that some mixtures maintain physical properties of their ingredients such as iron filings and sand and sand and water; and."

Comment. Two teachers and two administrators expressed concern regarding the student expectation in §112.16(b)(5)(C) and stated that the proposed changes make the student expectation unclear.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE took action to amend §112.16(b)(5)(C) to read, "identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water."

Comment. One teacher recommended combining student expectations such as §112.16(b)(5)(C) and (D), which are regularly assessed simultaneously and taught together, rather than deleting critical content to streamline.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations did not need to be combined.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 stated that the phrase "and consists of useful resources" is no longer needed in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.16(b)(7).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the knowledge and skills statement was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that the proposed changes to Grade 5 looked good in general.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher suggested that the student expectation in §112.16(b)(7)(A) be split into separate student expectations.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Four teachers and two administrators expressed concern with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.16(b)(7)(C).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.16(b)(7)(C) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 5 and were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher and two administrators expressed opposition to the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.16(b)(7)(D) related to fossils.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.16(b)(7)(D) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 5 and were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed concern with the proposed addition of language related to once-living organisms in §112.16(b)(9)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed and took action to amend §112.16(b)(9)(A) to read, "observe the way organisms live and survive in their ecosystem by interacting with the living and nonliving components."

Comment. One teacher and one administrator expressed concern with the proposed deletion of §112.16(b)(9)(D) related to the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.16(b)(9)(D) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 5 and were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One community member suggested adding cycling of matter to the student expectation in §112.16(b)(9)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher asked whether the section on alternative energy resources was removed entirely or moved to another heading in Grade 5.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The student expectation on alternative energy resources in Grade 5 has been deleted. Alternative energy resources are appropriately addressed in Grade 6.

Comment. One community member expressed concern with the proposed deletion of §112.18(a)(1) and (2) in the introduction. The commenter asked if this material would be taught in another grade or was gone forever.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The changes to the introduction to the Grade 6 TEKS as adopted did not eliminate any current language. Changes were only made to reorder the paragraphs to align with other grade levels.

Comment. One teacher stated that the proposed changes to the student expectations in §112.18(b)(2)(A) and (B) seem redundant.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were not redundant. One student expectation addresses comparative and descriptive investigations while the other addresses experimental investigations.

Comment. One teacher and members of the science department at a middle school expressed agreement with the proposed deletion of triple beam balances from the student expectation in §112.18(b)(4)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher agreed with proposed changes to the student expectation in §112.18(b)(5)(A) and the deletion of subsection (b)(5)(C) related to elements and compounds.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed opposition to the proposed changes to §112.18(b)(5)(A) and the proposed deletion of subsection (b)(5)(C) and recommended that the current language for both student expectations be retained.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher and one community member stated that the concept of density should not be included in the proposed student expectation in §112.18(b)(6)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that density was appropriately included in the student expectation.

Comment. One teacher suggested incorporating §112.18(b)(7), advantages and disadvantages of using energy resources, under the knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(9).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriately included under a separate knowledge and skills statement.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for changing the verb "debate" to "discuss" in the proposed student expectation in §112.18(b)(7)(A) related the advantages and disadvantages of energy sources.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.18(b)(7)(B), which demonstrates the importance of conserving energy and resources.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that deletion of §112.18(b)(7)(B) was necessary in order to streamline the TEKS for Grade 6.

Comment. Two teachers expressed support for the removal of pulleys in the proposed student expectation in §112.18(b)(8)(E).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern for the deletion of pulleys from §112.18(b)(8)(E).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of pulleys in the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher recommended that the student expectation in §112.18(b)(9)(B) related to thermal energy be deleted.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriately included in the Grade 6 TEKS.

Comment. One teacher recommended that the student expectation in §112.18(b)(9)(C) related to energy transformations be deleted.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriately included in the Grade 6 TEKS.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the change from "structural" to "compositional and mechanical" in the proposed student expectation in §112.18(b)(10)(A) related to Earth's layers.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the rewording of the proposed student expectation in §112.18(b)(10)(D).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the removal of the word "Galilean" in the proposed student expectation in §112.18(b)(11)(A) related to the solar system.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher recommended excluding the student expectation in §112.18(b)(11)(B) from the Grade 8 State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR®) examination.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the editorial changes in the proposed knowledge and skills statement in §112.18(b)(12) and the student expectations in subsection (b)(12)(C) and (D).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the changes in the proposed student expectation in §112.18(b)(12)(B) related to cells.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher suggested combining student expectations in §112.18(b)(12)(B) and (D).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher recommended deleting kingdoms from the student expectation in §112.18(b)(12)(D) because it takes class time for teachers to review before the Grade 8 STAAR® examination.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that kingdoms were appropriately included in the student expectation.

Comment. One administrator stated that the proposed changes to the TEKS for Grades 6 and 8 reduce superfluous content and provide clarity without removing foundational concepts.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the inclusion of the statement regarding "including" and "such as" in the introductions for Grades 6-8.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the replacement of "Texas Safety Standards" with "Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards" in the proposed student expectation in subsection (b)(1)(A) in Grades 6-8.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the clarifications to the proposed student expectation in subsection (b)(4)(A) related to science tools in Grades 6-8.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher provided a scope and sequence for Grades 6-8 and included feedback for instructional time in Grade 6.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. The SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in Grades 6-8 were necessary as a result of this feedback. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One administrator stated that the middle school and high school committees consulted experts in the field and their recommendations are well reasoned and necessary.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. Two teachers and members of the science department at a middle school expressed concern with the proposed deletion of language in §112.19(a)(1)(B) in the introduction.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the changes to the introduction to the Grade 7 TEKS as adopted eliminates language to align with the grade-level student expectations.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested deleting the last sentence from §112.19(a)(1)(B) in the introduction as it is no longer applicable since the language regarding molecules has been removed.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the language in §112.19(a)(1)(B) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that characteristics for life in space was still found in proposed §112.19(a)(1)(D) in the introduction.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the language in §112.19(a)(1)(D) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that the proposed changes to the student expectations in §112.19(b)(2)(A) and (B) seem redundant.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were appropriate as proposed. One student expectation addresses comparative and descriptive investigations while the other addresses experimental investigations.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with the inclusion of pH probes in the student expectation in §112.19(b)(4)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the inclusion of pH probes in §112.19(b)(4)(A) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher agreed with the proposed deletion of the student expectations in §112.19(b)(5)(B), (6)(A) and (C), and (7)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with the proposed deletion of §112.19(b)(5)(B), (6)(C), and (7)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.19(b)(5)(B), (6)(C), and (7)(A) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 7 and were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher suggested moving the content from proposed §112.19(b)(6), changes in matter in the digestive system, to the knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(5).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the content was appropriately included under a separate knowledge and skills statement. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.19(b)(6) to read, "Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical and chemical properties and can undergo physical and chemical changes. The student is expected to distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter."

Comment. One teacher and members of the science department at a middle school expressed agreement with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.19(b)(6)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. Two teachers and members of the science department at a middle school expressed support for the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.19(b)(7)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the clarification of proposed student expectations in §112.19(b)(7)(B) and (8)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. Two teachers recommended deleting student expectations in §112.19(b)(9)(A) and (B), stating that they do not fit within the scope of the other topics for this grade.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were appropriately included in the TEKS for Grade 7.

Comment. One teacher recommended deleting the student expectation in §112.19(b)(10)(C) related to ecological succession because the student expectation takes class time for teachers to review before the Grade 8 STAAR® examination.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.19(b)(10)(C) was appropriately included in the TEKS for Grade 7.

Comment. One teacher recommended deleting dichotomous keys from the student expectation in §112.19(b)(11)(A) because it takes class time for teachers to review before the Grade 8 STAAR® examination.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.19(b)(11)(A) was appropriately included in the TEKS for Grade 7.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the addition of hybrid plants to the proposed student expectation in §112.19(b)(11)(C).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the rewording of the proposed student expectations in §112.19(b)(12)(E) and (F) and (14)(B).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed concern about the proposed edits to §112.19(b)(12)(F).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher recommended deleting the student expectation in §112.19(b)(14)(B) from the STAAR® examination.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed rewording of §112.20(a)(1)(B) in the introduction.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed removal of light waves in §112.20(a)(1)(D) in the introduction.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that topographic maps should be deleted from §112.20(a)(1)(D) in the introduction and the student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the inclusion of topographic maps in §112.20(a)(1)(D) and the student expectation in §112.20(b)(9)(C) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the removal of interactions in ecosystems from proposed §112.20(a)(1)(E) in the introduction.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that the proposed changes to the student expectations in §112.20(b)(2)(A) and (B) seem redundant.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed. One student expectation addresses comparative and descriptive investigations while the other addresses experimental investigations.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the removal of the word "comparative" from the proposed student expectation in §112.20(b)(2)(B).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take six class periods to cover the student expectations in §112.20(b)(2)(B) and (11)(A)-(C) related to interdependence among organisms.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.20(b)(2)(B) and (11)(A)-(C) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take six class periods to cover proposed student expectations in §112.20(b)(2)(A), (B), and (D) and (3)(B) and (D).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.20(b)(2)(A), (B), and (D) and (3)(B) and (D) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 14 class periods to cover student expectations in §112.20(b)(2)(A), (3)(B), (6)(C), and (9)(A) and (B) regarding plate tectonics.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations regarding plate tectonics were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take seven class periods to cover student expectations in §112.20(b)(2)(A) and (C)-(E) and (6)(A) regarding force and motion.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations regarding force and motion were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 20 class periods to cover student expectations in §112.20(b)(3)(B) and (7)(A)-(C) regarding Earth, Sun, and Moon cycles.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations regarding Earth, Sun, and Moon cycles were necessary.

Comment. One community member suggested adding a student expectation to §112.20(b)(3) to read, "define the core terms of each domain studied, and use them as defined in reports, questions, and discussions."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the language would add additional content to the course and was not necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 20 class periods to cover proposed student expectations in §112.20(b)(4)(A) and (B) and (5)(C)-(E).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.20(b)(4)(A) and (B) and (5)(C)-(E) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 15 class periods to cover proposed student expectations in §112.20(b)(5)(A) and (B) regarding atomic structure.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.20(b)(5)(A) and (B) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for proposed changes to the student expectation in §112.20(b)(5)(E) regarding properties of matter.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed concern with the proposed changes to §112.20(b)(5)(E) and suggested that the current language be retained.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Two teachers and a representative from ESC 13 expressed concern with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.20(b)(5)(F).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.20(b)(5)(F) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 8 and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Four teachers agreed with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.20(b)(5)(F) related to chemical equations containing coefficients.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 13 class periods to cover student expectations in §112.20(b)(6)(B) and (C) regarding Newton's laws of motion.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.20(b)(6)(B) and (C) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher and members of the science department at a middle school asked for an explanation of the student expectation in §112.20(b)(6)(C).

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The change to the student expectation in §112.20(b)(6)(C) eliminates the names of Newton's individual laws of motion and replaces them with a more general reference to Newton's three laws of motion.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed rewording of the student expectation in §112.20(b)(6)(C) related to Newton's laws of motion.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed changes to the student expectation in §112.20(b)(7)(C) related to positions of the Moon and Sun.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher suggested deleting the student expectation in §112.20(b)(7)(C).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriately included in the TEKS for Grade 8.

Comment. One teacher suggested deleting student expectations in §112.20(b)(8)(C) and (E).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were appropriately included in the Grade 8 TEKS.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed rewording of student expectations in §112.20(b)(8)(B) and (C).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher recommended deleting the phrase "the Sun as a medium-sized star" from the proposed student expectation in §112.20(b)(8)(B) because it takes class time for teachers to review before the Grade 8 STAAR® examination.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriately included in the Grade 8 TEKS.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take four class periods to cover the student expectation in §112.20(b)(8)(C).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to the student expectation in §112.20(b)(8)(C) were necessary.

Comment. Three teachers expressed concern regarding the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.20(b)(8)(D).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.20(b)(8)(D) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 8 and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Two teachers expressed support for the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.20(b)(8)(D).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 10 class periods to cover the student expectation in §112.20(b)(9)(C).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to the student expectation in §112.20(b)(9)(C) were necessary.

Comment. Two teachers recommended deleting topographic maps from the proposed student expectation in §112.20(b)(9)(C).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that topographic maps were appropriately included in the Grade 8 TEKS.

Comment. Two teachers recommended deleting student expectations in §112.20(b)(10)(A)-(C).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were appropriately included in the Grade 8 TEKS as proposed.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with the level of specificity in student expectations in §112.20(b)(10)(A) and (B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectations were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Two teachers expressed concern with the proposed removal of ocean currents from the student expectation in §112.20(b)(10)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of ocean currents streamlined the Grade 8 TEKS and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take seven class periods to cover student expectations in §112.20(b)(10)(A)-(C).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.20(b)(10)(A)-(C) were necessary.

Comment. Two teachers expressed concern with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.20(b)(11)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.20(b)(11)(A) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 8 and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Two teachers and members of the science department at a middle school expressed support for the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.20(b)(11)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher agreed with the addition of "factors such as food" to proposed new §112.20(b)(11)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that there is not enough time in a school year to adequately cover all the proposed TEKS for Grade 8 in depth.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provided instruction in the Grade 8 TEKS indicated that there was sufficient time to teach the TEKS.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would require one week for students to learn vocabulary of specific science concepts, except for Newton's laws of motion, which would require five weeks.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations were necessary.

Comment. One community member and one university/college staff member expressed concern about calculator use on the Grade 8 STAAR® examination. The commenter stated that if calculators are allowed for Grade 8 mathematics, they should be allowed for Grade 8 science.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher provided specific information regarding the amount of instructional time needed for Grade 8.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments were necessary.

Comment. One community member stated that evolutionary biology curriculum in proposed §112.34 should include opportunities for students to learn opposing evidence and that language that is proposed to be deleted takes away that opportunity.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the TEKS for Biology continue to provide opportunities for students to study opposing evidence in evolutionary biology.

Comment. One university/college staff member suggested revising the proposed student expectation in §112.34(c)(2)(C) to read, "know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being verified by multiple independent lines of evidence."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with the proposed student expectation in §112.34(c)(2)(F) given the lack of teaching and testing of essential technology, micropipettes, and cameras.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take eight class periods to cover scientific methods, data, and safety under knowledge and skills statements in §112.34(c)(2) and (3).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(2) and (3) were necessary.

Comment. One community member requested that proposed student expectations in §112.34(c)(3)(A), (7)(G), and (9)(D) be reinstated in their original form.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.34(c)(7)(G) and (9)(D) streamlined the TEKS for Grade 8 and were appropriate as proposed. The SBOE also determined that the amendment to the student expectation in §112.34(c)(3)(A) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the deletion of content in student expectations in §112.34(c)(3)(A), (5)(B), and (6)(H) due to time constraints.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One community member stated that additional instructional time would be needed if "evaluate" is included in §112.34(c)(4)(A) and (7)(B).

Response. The SBOE agreed that revisions to §112.34(c)(4)(A) were needed. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity." The SBOE determined that amendments to §112.34(c)(7)(B) as proposed appropriately eliminated the word "evaluate" in order to streamline the TEKS.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 15-20 class periods to cover cells as basic structures of all living things in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(4).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. The SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(4) were necessary based on this feedback. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 17 class periods to cover proposed §112.34(c)(4)(A)-(C) regarding cells and viruses.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. The SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(4) were necessary based on this feedback. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed changes to the student expectations in §112.34(c)(4)(A)-(C).

Response. The SBOE agreed that student expectations in §112.34(c)(4)(B) and (C) were appropriate as proposed. However, in response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

Comment. One university/college staff member stated that high school students are not capable of evaluating explanations for cell complexity in the proposed student expectation in §112.34(c)(4)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed that evaluating was not the appropriate activity for this student expectation. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

Comment. Nine teachers expressed concern regarding the proposed student expectation in §112.34(c)(4)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed that the student expectation needed revision. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

Comment. One teacher suggested revising §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and evaluate how well endosymbiotic theory explains the complexity of eukaryotic cells."

Response. The SBOE disagreed with the recommended language. However, in response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

Comment. One university/college staff member suggested changing §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells including scientific explanations for their complexity."

Response. The SBOE disagreed with the recommended language. However, in response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

Comment. An administrator, 2 teachers, 1 parent, and 221 community members expressed support for including the word "evaluate" in the proposed student expectation in §112.34(c)(4)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed that evaluating was the appropriate activity for this student expectation. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

Comment. One community member stated that discussions for §112.34(c)(4)(A) should include a reference to endosymbiosis.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 recommended that the original language for the student expectation in §112.34(c)(4)(A) be retained.

Response. The SBOE disagreed that the original language was appropriate. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity."

Comment. One community member stated that student expectations in §112.34(c)(4)(A), (6)(A), and (7)(B) should be approved as proposed.

Response. The SBOE agreed that the student expectation in §112.34(c)(7)(B) was appropriate as proposed. However, the SBOE disagreed that §112.34(c)(4)(A) and (6)(A) should be approved as proposed. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(4)(A) to read, "compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity." In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with the proposed student expectation in §112.34(c)(4)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.34(c)(4)(B) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 15-20 class periods to cover how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation in §112.34(c)(5)(A)-(C).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(5)(A)-(C) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take eight class periods to cover cell cycle, differentiation, and cancer in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(5).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback received, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(5) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern for the deletion of §112.34(c)(5)(B), (6)(H), (7)(B), (9)(D), and (11)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of student expectations in §112.34(c)(5)(B), (6)(H), (9)(D), and (11)(B) was appropriate as proposed. The SBOE provides the following clarification regarding the student expectation in §112.34(c)(7)(B). The student expectation was not proposed for deletion. The SBOE determined that the amendments to this student expectation were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Ten teachers and one university/college staff member suggested revising the proposed student expectation in §112.34(c)(6)(A) to change "evaluate" to "understand" due to the amount of time it takes for educators to teach students to evaluate scientific explanations for the origin of DNA.

Response. The SBOE agreed that the word "evaluate" should be changed. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Comment. Nine teachers expressed concern with the proposed changes to the student expectation in §112.34(c)(6)(A) and stated that this knowledge is essential for the average Biology student.

Response. The SBOE agreed that the content in §112.34(c)(6)(A) is essential. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Comment. Two teachers suggested revising the proposed student expectation in §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA and describe how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA."

Response. The SBOE disagreed with the suggested change. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Comment. One teacher requested a better definition of the origin of DNA and how to teach origin of DNA-RNA theory in the student expectation in §112.34(c)(6)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed that a better definition of the origin of DNA was needed. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Comment. One university/college staff member stated that the streamlining committee suggested changing "evaluate" to "identify" in §112.34(c)(6)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed that the TEKS review committee recommended replacing the word "evaluate." In response to this and other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Comment. A parent, 2 teachers, 1 administrator, and 223 community members expressed support for including the word "evaluate" in §112.34(c)(6)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the word "evaluate" in the student expectation in §112.34(c)(6)(A) should be revised. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Comment. Three teachers expressed concern with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(6)(H) related to the study of genomes of organisms.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(6)(H) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 15-20 class periods to cover the mechanism of genetics in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(6).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. The SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(6) were necessary as a result of this feedback. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 25 class periods to cover transcription, translation, genetics, and meiosis in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(6).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. The SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(6) were necessary as a result of this feedback. In response to other comments, however, the SBOE took action to amend §112.34(c)(6)(A) to read, "identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Comment. One community member suggested revising the proposed knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(7) to read, "The student knows evolutionary theory is a naturalistic (materialistic) explanation for the unity and diversity of life."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(7) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One university/college staff member suggested that in the proposed knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(7), the word "a" be replaced with "the." The commenter stated that there is no other explanation in science for the unity and diversity in life.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(7) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 15 class periods to cover evolutionary theory and natural selection in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(7).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(7) were necessary.

Comment. One community member suggested revising the student expectation in §112.34(c)(7)(A) to read, "analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies, including anatomical, molecular, and developmental, assuming that life developed by naturalistic means."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation in §112.34(c)(7)(A) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher and one university/college staff member suggested that proposed §112.34(c)(7)(B) be omitted as it requires a lot of instructional time for students to master.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation in §112.34(c)(7)(B) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher, three community members, and two university/college staff expressed concern with the proposed student expectation in §112.31(c)(7)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation in §112.34(c)(7)(A) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One community member expressed support for including the word "evaluate" in §112.34(c)(7)(B) and (G) and (9)(D).

Response. The SBOE disagreed that the word "evaluate" was necessary in the student expectation in §112.34(c)(7)(B) and determined that the student expectation was appropriate as proposed. Additionally, the SBOE determined that student expectations in §112.34(c)(7)(G) and (9)(D) were appropriately proposed for deletion.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed opposition to the proposed deletion of §112.34(c)(7)(G) and suggested retaining the student expectation.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of the student expectation streamlined the TEKS for Biology and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One university/college staff member expressed support for proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(7)(G).

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(7)(G) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 15-20 class periods to cover taxonomy and kingdoms in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(8).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(8) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 17 class periods to cover biomolecules, photosynthesis, cell respiration, and enzymes in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(9).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(9) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 10-15 class periods to cover the significance of various molecules in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(9).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(9) were necessary.

Comment. One administrator expressed support for the proposed deletion of chemistry concepts from student expectations in §112.34(c)(9).

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the amendments to §112.34(c)(9) were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed deletion of structures of biomolecules from the student expectation in §112.34(c)(9)(A).

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the language of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(9)(A) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One university/college staff member expressed support for the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(9)(D).

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(9)(D) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher and one community member expressed opposition to the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(9)(D).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(9)(D) streamlined the TEKS for Biology and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed concern for the deletion of §112.34(c)(9)(D) and suggested retaining the student expectation to read, "evaluate scientific explanations for the origin of DNA."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(9)(D) streamlined the TEKS for Biology and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher requested that the SBOE combine the student expectation in §112.34(c)(11)(A), which is proposed for deletion, with the proposed student expectation in subsection (c)(10)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(11)(A) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 15 class periods to cover "biological systems are composed of multiple levels" in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(10).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(10) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 19 class periods to cover animal systems, plant systems, and levels of organization in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(10).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(10) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed deletion of student expectations in §112.34(c)(11)(A) and (B) and (12)(D).

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the deletion of student expectations in §112.34(c)(11)(A) and (B) and (12)(D) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher suggested that rather than deleting the student expectation in §112.34(c)(11)(B), the SBOE should move it under the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(12).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of the student expectation in §112.34(c)(11)(B) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 8-10 class periods to cover "biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance" in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(11).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(11) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take eight class periods to cover roles of microorganisms and ecological succession in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(11).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(11) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 10-15 class periods to cover the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(12) regarding interdependence and interactions within an environmental system.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(12) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 21 class periods to cover relationships, adaptations, and ecology in the knowledge and skills statement in §112.34(c)(12).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.34(c)(12) were necessary.

Comment. One community member stated that it would be a disservice to students if the proposed Biology TEKS did not prepare students for their next biology class, either AP Biology or in college.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the proposed Biology TEKS appropriately prepare students for their next level biology course.

Comment. One teacher expressed relief that the proposed changes create less content to cover in Biology, which will allow more time to ensure student understanding of what must be covered.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that there will not be a requirement to teach biotechnology, feedback and homeostasis, and limited resources within ecology in the Biology course as proposed.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the aim of the TEKS revision was to streamline the TEKS.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern regarding addressing abstract concepts in Biology that students do not understand or cannot fully grasp.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the concepts in the Biology TEKS were appropriate.

Comment. One community member expressed support for the proposed science TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. Two teachers and 233 community members expressed support for the current 2009 science TEKS and requested that the SBOE protect the critical discussion and open debate of scientific subjects and theories, including evolution, that were provided under the 2009 TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agreed that critical discussion and open debate of scientific subjects are important and determined that the streamlined science TEKS appropriately allow for discussion and debate of scientific subjects and theories.

Comment. One university/college staff member expressed concern that no evolutionary scientists were consulted about the proposed changes to Biology and stated that the changes create scientifically incorrect information.

Response. The SBOE disagreed that the changes to the TEKS create scientifically incorrect information.

Comment. A teacher, 25 parents, 46 community members, 3 university/college staff, and 1 out-of-state individual stated that the proposed Biology TEKS should include a robust discussion of evolution that is free from discredited anti-evolution arguments.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the Biology TEKS appropriately address evolution and are free from discredited anti-evolution arguments.

Comment. One teacher, four parents, and seven community members expressed concern regarding proposed amendments to the science TEKS that add creationist language to the curriculum standards and requested that the language be removed.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that the language included in the science TEKS was appropriate.

Comment. One community member expressed support for the inclusion of biological evolution in the TEKS for Biology.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the Biology TEKS appropriately address biological evolution.

Comment. One teacher stated that the changes to the proposed student expectation in §112.35(c)(5)(B) related to the Periodic Table were unnecessary because the meaning of the student expectation did not change.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The change to §112.35(c)(5)(B) was simply made to correct the structure of the student expectation and not intended to change the meaning.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.35(c)(6)(C).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern regarding the proposed deletion of content in §112.35(c)(6)(C) and (8)(C) and (D).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of the student expectation in §112.35(c)(6)(C) and the changes to student expectations in §112.35(c)(8)(C) and (D) streamlined the TEKS for Chemistry and were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 recommended that the student expectation in §112.35(c)(8)(C) should read, "calculate percent composition of compounds and differentiate between empirical and molecular formulas."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation in §112.35(c)(8)(C) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 recommended deleting the proposed new student expectation in §112.35(c)(8)(D).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the addition of the student expectation in §112.35(c)(8)(D) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed concern regarding the addition of the proposed student expectation in §112.35(c)(8)(F) and suggested retaining this content in subsection (c)(10)(H).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the content of the student expectation in §112.35(c)(8)(F) was appropriately included in subsection (b)(8)(D) rather than subsection (b)(10)(H). In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §112.35(c)(8)(F) to eliminate the phrase "ion swap."

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that proposed student expectations in §112.35(c)(8)(G) and (H) be combined to read, "perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass relationships between reactants and products and percent yield and describe the concept of limiting reactants."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that student expectations in §112.35(c)(8)(G) and (H) were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed concern regarding the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.35(c)(9)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.35(c)(9)(B) streamlined the TEKS for Chemistry and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the student expectation in §112.35(c)(10)(E) be changed to read, "distinguish among types of solutions such as electrolytes and non electrolytes and unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.35(c)(10)(E) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed concern regarding the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.35(c)(10)(J) and suggested it be retained and amended to read, "distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.35(c)(10)(J) streamlined the TEKS for Chemistry and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed opposition to combining the content of §112.35(c)(12)(A) and old §112.35(c)(12)(B).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.35(c)(12)(A) appropriately combined the content of the two student expectations.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for all proposed deletions in Chemistry.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that the proposed Chemistry TEKS have been significantly watered down.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the streamlined Chemistry TEKS were appropriate in rigor and depth.

Comment. One administrator stated that the clarity of the verbs in the proposed TEKS for Chemistry help to better define the scope of the course.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 disagreed with the proposed addition of the student expectation in §112.38(c)(1)(B) because it is new content added to the course.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the addition of the student expectation in §112.38(c)(1)(B) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested deleting the student expectation in §112.38(c)(3)(C) to be consistent with proposed edits with other courses.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.38(c)(3)(C) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher expressed disagreement with the proposal to divide §112.38(c)(6)(E) into two student expectations, subsection (c)(6)(E) and new subsection (c)(6)(F), and the deletion of pressure and pH from the new student expectation.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the amendment to §112.38(c)(6)(E) and the addition of §112.38(c)(6)(F) were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator questioned the accuracy of the proposed student expectation in §112.38(c)(7)(D). The commenter stated that broken glow sticks undergo an exergonic reaction, not an exothermic reaction, and that this example should be deleted from the student expectation.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.38(c)(7)(D) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator stated that the clarity of the verbs in the proposed student expectations for Integrated Physics and Chemistry (IPC) helps to better define the scope of the course.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that proposed knowledge and skills statements in §112.39(c)(1)-(3) are taught throughout the course.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Student expectations in §112.39(c)(1)-(3) are the science process standards and are designed to be integrated with content standards.

Comment. One administrator stated that the word "hypotheses" is missing from the phrase "formulating testable" in the proposed student expectation in §112.39(c)(2)(D).

Response. The SBOE agreed and took action to amend §112.39(c)(2)(D) to change the phrase "formulating testable" to "formulating testable hypotheses."

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take five class periods to cover the proposed student expectation in §112.39(c)(2)(G).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to the student expectation in §112.39(c)(2)(G) were necessary.

Comment. Two teachers expressed opposition to the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.39(c)(2)(D) regarding scientific hypotheses and theories.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.39(c)(2)(D) streamlined the TEKS for IPC and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed disagreement with the proposed deletion of student expectations in §112.39(c)(2)(D) and (I) and the combining of the content of those student expectations in proposed new §112.39(c)(2)(D).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.39(c)(2)(D) and (I) streamlined the TEKS for IPC and were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One community member expressed concern that the word "critique" is included in the student expectation in §112.39(c)(3)(A).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that requiring students to critique scientific explanations was appropriately included in §112.39(c)(3)(A).

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the student expectation in §112.39(c)(3)(E) be revised to read, "express and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically, including problems requiring proportional reasoning and graphical vector addition."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.39(c)(3)(E) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for proposed changes to student expectations in §112.39(c)(4)(A)-(D).

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the student expectation in §112.39(c)(4)(B) be revised to read, "describe and analyze motion in one dimension using equations with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and acceleration."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.39(c)(4)(B) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the student expectation in §112.39(c)(4)(C) be revised to read, "analyze and describe accelerated motion in two dimensions using equations, including projectile and circular examples."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.39(c)(4)(C) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the student expectation in §112.39(c)(4)(D) be revised to read, "calculate the effect of forces on objects, including the law of inertia, the relationship between force and acceleration, and the nature of force pairs between objects."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that §112.39(c)(4)(D) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. Two teachers expressed concern with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.39(c)(4)(E) related to free-body diagrams.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.39(c)(4)(E) streamlined the TEKS for IPC and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed the concern with proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.39(c)(4)(F) related to motion relative to different frames of reference.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.39(c)(4)(F) streamlined the TEKS for IPC and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 20 class periods to cover proposed student expectations in §112.39(c)(4)(D) and (5)(B).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.39(c)(4)(D) and (5)(B) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 20 class periods to cover proposed student expectations in §112.39(c)(5)(C)-(F).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.39(c)(5)(C)-(F) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern for the proposed deletion of the words "design and construct" from the student expectation in §112.39(c)(5)(F).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the language in §112.39(c)(5)(F) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 10 class periods to cover proposed student expectations in §112.39(c)(6)(A) and (B).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.39(c)(6)(A) and (B) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 10 class periods to cover proposed student expectations in §112.39(c)(6)(C) and (D).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.39(c)(6)(C) and (D) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern for the proposed deletion of student expectations in §112.39(c)(6)(E) and (F) and the changes to subsection (c)(6)(G) because they are important in order for students to see the correlation between physics and chemistry.

Response. The SBOE disagreed that eliminating the content in §112.39(c)(6)(E)-(G) would affect the ability of students to see correlations between physics and chemistry.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 expressed disagreement with the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.39(c)(6)(F).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.39(c)(6)(F) streamlined the TEKS for IPC and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the proposed new student expectation in §112.39(c)(6)(E) be revised to read, "explain everyday examples that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics, including the law of conservation of energy and the law of entropy."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation in §112.39(c)(6)(E) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 10 class periods to cover proposed student expectations in §112.39(c)(7)(A) and (C)-(E).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.39(c)(7)(A) and (C)-(E) were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would take 12 class periods to cover the proposed student expectation in §112.39(c)(7)(B).

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to student expectations in §112.39(c)(7)(B) were necessary.

Comment. Two teachers expressed concern regarding the proposed deletion of the student expectation in §112.39(c)(7)(F) related to the role of wave characteristics and behaviors.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of §112.39(c)(7)(F) streamlined the TEKS for IPC and was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that it is a struggle to cover student expectations in §112.39(c)(6)(E) and (8)(A)-(D) in a school year.

Response. The SBOE agreed and took action to delete §112.39(c)(6)(E) and to amend §112.39(c)(8)(C) and (D) in order to reduce the amount of content required to be covered in Physics.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the student expectation in §112.39(c)(8)(C) be revised to read, "describe the significance of mass-energy equivalence and apply it in explanations of phenomena such as nuclear stability, fission, and fusion."

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the student expectation in §112.39(c)(8)(C) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested deleting nuclear stability, fission, and fusion from the proposed student expectation in §112.39(c)(8)(D).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the content of the student expectation in §112.39(c)(6)(D) was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher stated that, as proposed, the Physics course requires significantly more mathematics and equations.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the Physics TEKS require an appropriate amount of mathematics.

Comment. One administrator stated that the clarity and careful selection of verbs for Physics help to better define the scope of the course and reduce redundancy.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher stated that there should be a new assessment to reflect the new TEKS and asked whether deleted concepts would still be tested if they had been taught at an earlier grade level.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher asked whether the Grade 5 science STAAR® examination would still assess TEKS from Grades 2-5.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One university/college staff expressed concern with proposed changes to the student expectation in subsection (c)(3)(A) in the high school courses and the student expectations in subsection (b)(3)(A) and (B) in Grades 3-5.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the language was inconsistent among grade levels. As a result, the SBOE took action to amend the student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(A) in Grades 6-8 and subsection (c)(3)(A) in Chemistry, IPC, and Physics to read, "analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, as to encourage critical thinking by the student." Additionally, the SBOE determined that the deletion of the student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(B) in Grades 3-5 was appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One university/college staff stated that the proposed science TEKS eliminate critical thinking.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the science TEKS appropriately require students to engage in critical thinking.

Comment. One university/college staff stated that science and religion should be reconciled.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher, two parents, nine community members, and two university/college staff expressed support for teaching evolution in the proposed science TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that evolution was appropriately addressed in the TEKS for Biology.

Comment. Two teachers and twenty-nine community members expressed support for science TEKS that allow teachers and students to study and question all sides of evolution.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that studying and questioning all sides of evolution was appropriately addressed in the TEKS for Biology.

Comment. One community member stated that creation and evolution should be presented in a neutral manner in the TEKS and that evolution should be presented as a scientific-related philosophy, not a fact.

Response. The SBOE agreed that evolution should be taught in a neutral manner and determined that evolution was appropriately presented in the TEKS for Biology.

Comment. A representative from ESC 13 suggested that the student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(A) in Grades 6-8 and subsection (c)(3)(A) in Chemistry, IPC, and Physics be changed to read, "analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student."

Response. The SBOE agreed and took action to amend the student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(A) in Grades 6-8 and subsection (c)(3)(A) in Chemistry, IPC, and Physics to read, "analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, as to encourage critical thinking by the student."

Comment. One university/college staff member expressed a concern with the proposed deletion of TEKS related to the environment in student expectations in §112.16(b)(7)(C), §112.18(b)(7)(B), §112.19(b)(5)(B), and §112.34(c)(12)(D).

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of the content in §112.16(b)(7)(C), §112.18(b)(7)(B), §112.19(b)(5)(B), and §112.34(c)(12)(D) was necessary in order to streamline the TEKS.

Comment. One community member stated that human-induced global climate change by the extraction and burning of fossil fuels is far more than a theory.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with streamlining the TEKS and stated that there are gaps in the TEKS for kindergarten-Biology and that several concepts are missing and/or incompletely developed.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the TEKS for kindergarten through high school were appropriate as adopted.

Comment. One administrator stated that the following concepts are poorly developed in the proposed TEKS: weather/types of clouds, force and motion, simple machines, sound (pitch, volume), waves, and engineering/motors.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the concepts were appropriately addressed in the kindergarten-Grade 12 science TEKS.

Comment. One community member asked if the official public comment period provided an opportunity to give a demonstration to the SBOE.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One university/college staff member expressed concern with the proposed deletion of student expectations related to renewable energy.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the deletion of content was necessary in order to streamline the TEKS.

Comment. One university/college staff member inquired whether edits made by the SBOE at first reading could be differentiated from the committees' final drafts.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. TEA has posted separate documents that identify the committee's recommendations and justifications to the Science TEKS Streamlining webpage on the TEA website.

Comment. Three teachers, twenty-six parents, forty-eight community members, and three university/college staff members requested that the SBOE honor the recommendations of the teachers and scientists on the science TEKS streamlining committees and not politicize science.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the TEKS as adopted appropriately reflect the recommendations of the science TEKS streamlining committees and were not politicizing science.

Comment. Seven community members, one university/college staff member, and one out-of-state individual stated that in the proposed science TEKS, students need to be taught science based on scientific evidence and the scientific method.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the TEKS as adopted appropriately require instruction in scientific evidence and the scientific method.

Comment. Four teachers, twenty-eight parents, sixty-five community members, three university/college staff, and one out-of-state individual expressed concern regarding the political and religious agendas reflected in the proposed science TEKS and attempts to insert those agendas into the Texas science curriculum.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the TEKS as adopted do not reflect a political or religious agenda.

Comment. One parent and eighteen community members stated that the proposed science TEKS should honor the principle of separation of church and state.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the TEKS as adopted honor the principle of separation of church and state.

Comment. One community member expressed the concern that if children are provided with inaccurate information then the future is at stake as well as our ability to show leadership in the world.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Five community members stated that science curriculum is extremely important to keep Texas moving toward innovation and scientific breakthroughs. The commenters stated that Texas children will not be able to compete in the field of science if they do not learn the basic accepted concepts of the science community.

Response. The SBOE agreed that science curriculum is important and determined that the TEKS as adopted appropriately address the basic concepts of science and the science community.

Comment. One community member and one university/college staff member requested that the SBOE respect the opinions of scientists, scientific boards and organizations, and institutions of higher education in the proposed science TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the public, including scientists, scientific boards and organizations, and institutions of higher education, had numerous opportunities to share their opinions regarding the proposed revisions to the science TEKS.

Comment. One community member stated that the nation and community needs to be strongly committed to scientific endeavors and encouraged the SBOE to fully support a strong science curriculum in Texas schools.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the TEKS as adopted support a strong science curriculum.

Comment. Two community members stated that religion is properly and constitutionally taught in homes and churches and that pseudo-science should not be taught through the proposed science TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the TEKS as adopted do not include pseudo-science.

Comment. One parent stated that science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) learning is the best approach to teach thought process and skills.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Three community members and one university/college staff member stated that it is imperative that Texas high school students receive the highest-quality education to succeed in the global marketplace.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One university/college staff member inquired about the use of the word "recommended" for hands-on activities in the proposed introductions for the science TEKS since the percentage of hands-on activities for science is required by the Texas Education Code (TEC).

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The TEC permits, but does not require, the SBOE to require time spent on laboratory activities in the science TEKS. The TEKS for middle and high school require a minimum percentage of instructional time be dedicated to laboratory investigations. The TEKS for elementary grade levels encourage districts to spend a minimum amount of instructional time on classroom and outdoor investigations.

Comment. One parent stated that the proposed science TEKS should include global warming and its well established physical basis.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the aim of the TEKS revision was to streamline content, not to add new topics for instruction.

Comment. One teacher, one administrator, three community members, and members of the science community, including the Texas Science Education Leadership Association (TSELA) and Science Teachers Association of Texas (STAT), requested that the SBOE honor the recommendations of the teachers and scientists on the science TEKS streamlining committees.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the recommendations of the science TEKS streamlining committees were appropriately included in the science TEKS as adopted.

Comment. Members of TSELA requested a statement on how the streamlined science TEKS will affect STAAR®.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Members of TSELA requested guidance regarding funding used for science instruction.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Members of TSELA requested that supporting standards be included in primary grades.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One administrator expressed support for the inclusion of "such as" and "including" statements in the proposed science TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that "such as" and "including" examples had been included in the science TEKS as appropriate.

Comment. One teacher and one community member expressed strong disagreement with the streamlined science TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the streamlined science TEKS were appropriate.

Comment. One teacher, six community members, and one university/college staff member expressed concern that students need real science in the proposed TEKS not watered down questionable science.

Response. The SBOE agreed that the TEKS must reflect real science and determined that the streamlined science TEKS were appropriate.

Comment. One administrator requested clarification about whether new instructional materials would be provided once the streamlining was complete.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One administrator asked for clarification regarding whether they should use proposed science TEKS when rewriting district curriculum this summer.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The amended science TEKS will be implemented beginning with the 2018-2019 school year.

Comment. One administrator asked whether the TEA would provide training on the streamlined science TEKS.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One administrator and members of TSELA requested that science supervisors partner with TEA staff to develop an implementation plan for the revised science TEKS.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Four teachers, two administrators, one community member, and members of TSELA and STAT suggested that the implementation of the streamlined science TEKS be changed to the 2018-2019 school year. The commenters expressed concern about the amount of time districts will have to communicate changes and adjust instructional calendars and materials aligned to the new TEKS citations.

Response. The SBOE agreed and took action to amend the elementary, middle, and high school science TEKS to implement the revised TEKS beginning with the 2018-2019 school year.

Comment. Three administrators and one community member asked about the proposed timeline for the implementation of the streamlined TEKS.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The amended science TEKS will be implemented beginning with the 2018-2019 school year.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that the textbooks available to Texas public schools are lacking in support of the TEKS and requested that the textbooks be streamlined as well.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One administrator stated that the current instructional materials will still be relevant for the proposed streamlined science TEKS.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher and members of the science department at an elementary school stated that each grade level, kindergarten-Grade 5, spends approximately six weeks apiece on knowledge and skills statements in subsections (b)(5)-(10) and related student expectations.

Response. The SBOE requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the student expectations as proposed. Based on the feedback, the SBOE determined that no additional adjustments to the student expectations in question were necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that the proposed changes for kindergarten-Grade 5 were minor and will not change the amount of time needed to teach the TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the science TEKS had been appropriately streamlined.

Comment. One administrator and members of TSELA requested that the public comments regarding instructional time be communicated to the field.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern that the proposed streamlined science TEKS would not provide additional instructional time for all grades.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the science TEKS had been appropriately streamlined.

Comment. One administrator stated that great consideration has been given to the amount of instructional time needed for teachers to teach, but the focus needs to be on the amount of time for students to demonstrate mastery.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that the revised science TEKS had been appropriately streamlined to ensure that students can master the content before the end of the school year or the STAAR® examination, whichever occurs first.

Comment. One teacher expressed disappointment with the streamlining of high school courses.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the TEKS for high school science courses had been appropriately streamlined.

Comment. One community member expressed strong disagreement with the streamlined science TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that the science TEKS had been appropriately streamlined.

Comment. One administrator and members of TSELA requested that the SBOE revisit the language regarding the percentage of time for investigations so teachers do not think the time requirement is optional.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that this request was outside the SBOE's goal to streamline the science TEKS.

Comment. Three teachers expressed support for the streamlining of the TEKS in Grades 6, 7, and 8.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for the proposed changes to elementary science and stated that the streamlined TEKS will allow for deeper discussion and opportunity for understanding.

Response. The SBOE agreed. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to respond to other comments.

Comment. Five teachers and six administrators requested that student expectations not be renumbered/relettered in order to keep the numbering/lettering of the current TEKS in place.

Response. The SBOE disagreed and determined that rules for the Texas Register require that the revised TEKS be renumbered or relettered in sequential order.

Comment. One community member stated that STAAR® performance could be increased by developing better competency in domain terminology and suggested adding a new student expectation and language to the introduction for each grade level and course.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One community member suggested that important terms should be explicitly stated in the proposed science TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agreed and determined that important terms were included in the TEKS as appropriate.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§112.10 - 112.16

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§112.10.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Elementary, Adopted 2017.

The provisions of §§112.11-112.16 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2018-2019 school year.

§112.11.Science, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Kindergarten, students observe and describe the natural world using their senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.

(A) A central theme throughout the study of scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment is active engagement in asking questions, creating a method to answer those questions, answering those questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations used in descriptive investigations.

(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size, weight, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, thermal, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.

(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. Other patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.

(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate the life cycle of plants and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:

(A) identify, discuss, and demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately; and

(B) demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reusing or recycling paper, plastic, and metal.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) collect data and make observations using simple tools;

(D) record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words; and

(E) communicate observations about simple descriptive investigations.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem such as the impact of littering and propose a solution;

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns in nature; and

(C) explore that scientists investigate different things in the natural world and use tools to help in their investigations.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools, including computing devices, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices; non-standard measuring items; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use the senses as a tool of observation to identify properties and patterns of organisms, objects, and events in the environment.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record properties of objects, including bigger or smaller, heavier or lighter, shape, color, and texture; and

(B) observe, record, and discuss how materials can be changed by heating or cooling.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy, force, and motion are related and are a part of their everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) use the senses to explore different forms of energy such as light, thermal, and sound;

(B) explore interactions between magnets and various materials;

(C) observe and describe the location of an object in relation to another such as above, below, behind, in front of, and beside; and

(D) observe and describe the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zigzag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, describe, and sort rocks by size, shape, color, and texture;

(B) observe and describe physical properties of natural sources of water, including color and clarity; and

(C) give examples of ways rocks, soil, and water are useful.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe weather changes from day to day and over seasons;

(B) identify events that have repeating patterns, including seasons of the year and day and night; and

(C) observe, describe, and illustrate objects in the sky such as the clouds, Moon, and stars, including the Sun.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that plants and animals have basic needs and depend on the living and nonliving things around them for survival. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between living and nonliving things based upon whether they have basic needs and produce offspring; and

(B) examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs such as food, water, and shelter for animals and air, water, nutrients, sunlight, and space for plants.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics such as color, size, body covering, or leaf shape;

(B) identify basic parts of plants and animals;

(C) identify ways that young plants resemble the parent plant; and

(D) observe changes that are part of a simple life cycle of a plant: seed, seedling, plant, flower, and fruit.

§112.12.Science, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 1, students observe and describe the natural world using their senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand the world around them in the context of scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.

(A) A central theme in first grade science is active engagement in asking questions, creating a method to answer those questions, answering those questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools in order to explain scientific concepts and processes like scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations used in descriptive investigations.

(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size, weight, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, thermal, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.

(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. In addition, patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.

(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate life cycles of animals and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:

(A) identify, discuss, and demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined in Texas Education agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately; and

(B) identify and learn how to use natural resources and materials, including conservation and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metals.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) collect data and make observations using simple tools;

(D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words; and

(E) communicate observations and provide reasons for explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem and propose a solution;

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and

(C) describe what scientists do.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate; timing devices; non-standard measuring items; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers and wind socks; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as aquariums and terrariums; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects using non-standard units.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) classify objects by observable properties such as larger and smaller, heavier and lighter, shape, color, and texture;

(B) predict and identify changes in materials caused by heating and cooling; and

(C) classify objects by the materials from which they are made.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that force, motion, and energy are related and are a part of everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and discuss how different forms of energy such as light, thermal, and sound are important to everyday life;

(B) predict and describe how a magnet can be used to push or pull an object; and

(C) demonstrate and record the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zig zag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, and water that can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, compare, describe, and sort components of soil by size, texture, and color;

(B) identify and describe a variety of natural sources of water, including streams, lakes, and oceans; and

(C) identify how rocks, soil, and water are used to make products.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes the air around us and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) record weather information, including relative temperature such as hot or cold, clear or cloudy, calm or windy, and rainy or icy;

(B) observe and record changes in the appearance of objects in the sky such as the Moon and stars, including the Sun;

(C) identify characteristics of the seasons of the year and day and night; and

(D) demonstrate that air is all around us and observe that wind is moving air.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that the living environment is composed of relationships between organisms and the life cycles that occur. The student is expected to:

(A) sort and classify living and nonliving things based upon whether they have basic needs and produce offspring;

(B) analyze and record examples of interdependence found in various situations such as terrariums and aquariums or pet and caregiver; and

(C) gather evidence of interdependence among living organisms such as energy transfer through food chains or animals using plants for shelter.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats;

(B) identify and compare the parts of plants;

(C) compare ways that young animals resemble their parents; and

(D) observe and record life cycles of animals such as a chicken, frog, or fish.

§112.13.Science, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 2, careful observation and investigation are used to learn about the natural world and reveal patterns, changes, and cycles. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by using observation and investigations and that the information gathered in these investigations may change as new observations are made. As students participate in investigation, they develop the skills necessary to do science as well as develop new science concepts.

(A) A central theme throughout the study of scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment is active engagement in asking questions, creating a method to answer those questions, answering those questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations used in descriptive investigations.

(B) Within the physical environment, students expand their understanding of the properties of objects such as temperature, shape, and flexibility then use those properties to compare, classify, and then combine the objects to do something that they could not do before. Students manipulate objects to demonstrate a change in motion and position.

(C) Within the natural environment, students will observe the properties of earth materials as well as predictable patterns that occur on Earth and in the sky. The students understand that those patterns are used to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation.

(D) Within the living environment, students explore patterns, systems, and cycles by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all the components within their habitat. Students examine how living organisms depend on each other and on their environment.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 60% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) identify, describe, and demonstrate safe practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately; and

(B) identify and demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metal.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events during observations and investigations;

(B) plan and conduct descriptive investigations;

(C) collect data from observations using scientific tools;

(D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words;

(E) communicate observations and justify explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations; and

(F) compare results of investigations with what students and scientists know about the world.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem and propose a task and solution for the problem;

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and

(C) identify what a scientist is and explore what different scientists do.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, rulers, plastic beakers, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate; timing devices; weather instruments such as thermometers, wind vanes, and rain gauges; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical properties and those properties determine how it is described, classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter by physical properties, including relative temperature, texture, flexibility, and whether material is a solid or liquid;

(B) compare changes in materials caused by heating and cooling;

(C) demonstrate that things can be done to materials such as cutting, folding, sanding, and melting to change their physical properties; and

(D) combine materials that when put together can do things that they cannot do by themselves such as building a tower or a bridge and justify the selection of those materials based on their physical properties.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate the effects on objects by increasing or decreasing amounts of light, heat, and sound energy such as how the color of an object appears different in dimmer light or how heat melts butter;

(B) observe and identify how magnets are used in everyday life; and

(C) trace and compare patterns of movement of objects such as sliding, rolling, and spinning over time.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, describe, and compare rocks by size, texture, and color;

(B) identify and compare the properties of natural sources of freshwater and saltwater; and

(C) distinguish between natural and manmade resources.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, record, and graph weather information, including temperature, wind conditions, precipitation, and cloud coverage, in order to identify patterns in the data;

(B) identify the importance of weather and seasonal information to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation; and

(C) observe, describe, and record patterns of objects in the sky, including the appearance of the Moon.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs that must be met for them to survive within their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the basic needs of plants and animals;

(B) identify factors in the environment, including temperature and precipitation, that affect growth and behavior such as migration, hibernation, and dormancy of living things; and

(C) compare the ways living organisms depend on each other and on their environments such as through food chains.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics and behaviors of animals help them meet their basic needs;

(B) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics of plants help them meet their basic needs such as stems carry water throughout the plant; and

(C) investigate and record some of the unique stages that insects such as grasshoppers and butterflies undergo during their life cycle.

§112.14.Science, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 3, students learn that the study of science uses appropriate tools and safe practices in planning and implementing investigations, asking and answering questions, collecting data by observing and measuring, and using models to support scientific inquiry about the natural world.

(A) Within the physical environment, students recognize that patterns, relationships, and cycles exist in matter. Students will investigate the physical properties of matter and will learn that changes occur. They explore mixtures and investigate light, sound, and thermal energy in everyday life. Students manipulate objects by pushing and pulling to demonstrate changes in motion and position.

(B) Within the natural environment, students investigate how the surface of Earth changes and provides resources that humans use. As students explore objects in the sky, they describe how relationships affect patterns and cycles on Earth. Students will construct models to demonstrate Sun, Earth, and Moon system relationships.

(C) Within the living environment, students explore patterns, systems, and cycles within environments by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all components of the natural environment. Students examine how the environment plays a key role in survival. Students know that when changes in the environment occur organisms may thrive, become ill, or perish.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific practices, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information while addressing the content and vocabulary in physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 60% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices as described in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves; and

(B) make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources by recycling or reusing materials such as paper, aluminum cans, and plastics.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking and answering questions, making inferences, and selecting and using equipment or technology needed, to solve a specific problem in the natural world;

(B) collect and record data by observing and measuring using the metric system and recognize differences between observed and measured data;

(C) construct maps, graphic organizers, simple tables, charts, and bar graphs using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate measured data;

(D) analyze and interpret patterns in data to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from investigations;

(E) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results; and

(F) communicate valid conclusions supported by data in writing, by drawing pictures, and through verbal discussion.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information, critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) represent the natural world using models such as volcanoes or the Sun, Earth, and Moon system and identify their limitations, including size, properties, and materials; and

(C) connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, wind vanes, rain gauges, pan balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, spring scales, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and Sun, Earth, and Moon system models; timing devices; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, test, and record physical properties of matter, including temperature, mass, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float;

(B) describe and classify samples of matter as solids, liquids, and gases and demonstrate that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container;

(C) predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling such as ice becoming liquid water, condensation forming on the outside of a glass of ice water, or liquid water being heated to the point of becoming water vapor; and

(D) explore and recognize that a mixture is created when two materials are combined such as gravel and sand or metal and plastic paper clips.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and that energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) explore different forms of energy, including mechanical, light, sound, and thermal in everyday life;

(B) demonstrate and observe how position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects such as swings, balls, and wagons; and

(C) observe forces such as magnetism and gravity acting on objects.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that Earth consists of natural resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to:

(A) explore and record how soils are formed by weathering of rock and the decomposition of plant and animal remains;

(B) investigate rapid changes in Earth's surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides; and

(C) explore the characteristics of natural resources that make them useful in products and materials such as clothing and furniture and how resources may be conserved.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, measure, record, and compare day-to-day weather changes in different locations at the same time that include air temperature, wind direction, and precipitation;

(B) describe and illustrate the Sun as a star composed of gases that provides light and thermal energy;

(C) construct models that demonstrate the relationship of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, including orbits and positions; and

(D) identify the planets in Earth's solar system and their position in relation to the Sun.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows and can describe patterns, cycles, systems, and relationships within the environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe the physical characteristics of environments and how they support populations and communities of plants and animals within an ecosystem;

(B) identify and describe the flow of energy in a food chain and predict how changes in a food chain affect the ecosystem such as removal of frogs from a pond or bees from a field; and

(C) describe environmental changes such as floods and droughts where some organisms thrive and others perish or move to new locations.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) explore how structures and functions of plants and animals allow them to survive in a particular environment; and

(B) investigate and compare how animals and plants undergo a series of orderly changes in their diverse life cycles such as tomato plants, frogs, and lady beetles.

§112.15.Science, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 4, investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and, based on new discoveries, are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(A) Within the physical environment, students know about the physical properties of matter including mass, volume, states of matter, temperature, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float. Students will differentiate among forms of energy including mechanical, light, sound, and thermal energy. Students will explore electrical circuits and design descriptive investigations to explore the effect of force on objects.

(B) Within the natural environment, students know that earth materials have properties that are constantly changing due to Earth's forces. The students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including renewable and nonrenewable, and their responsibility to conserve our natural resources for future generations. They will also explore Sun, Earth, and Moon relationships. The students will recognize that our major source of energy is the Sun.

(C) Within the living environment, students know and understand that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment. The students will recognize that plants and animals have basic needs, and they are met through a flow of energy known as food webs. Students will explore how all living organisms go through a life cycle and have structures that enable organisms to survive in their ecosystem.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 50% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations, following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves, as appropriate; and

(B) make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources and reusing and recycling of materials such as paper, aluminum, glass, cans, and plastic.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking well defined questions, making inferences, and selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology to answer his/her questions;

(B) collect and record data by observing and measuring, using the metric system, and using descriptive words and numerals such as labeled drawings, writing, and concept maps;

(C) construct simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and maps using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate data;

(D) analyze data and interpret patterns to construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured;

(E) perform repeated investigations to increase the reliability of results; and

(F) communicate valid oral and written results supported by data.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) represent the natural world using models such as the water cycle and stream tables and identify their limitations, including accuracy and size; and

(C) connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools, materials, equipment, and models to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to

collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, mirrors, spring scales, balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, compare, and contrast physical properties of matter, including mass, volume, states (solid, liquid, gas), temperature, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float; and

(B) compare and contrast a variety of mixtures, including solutions.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy exists in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among forms of energy, including mechanical, sound, electrical, light, and thermal;

(B) differentiate between conductors and insulators of thermal and electrical energy;

(C) demonstrate that electricity travels in a closed path, creating an electrical circuit; and

(D) design a descriptive investigation to explore the effect of force on an object such as a push or a pull, gravity, friction, or magnetism.

(7) Earth and space. The students know that Earth consists of useful resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to:

(A) examine properties of soils, including color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants;

(B) observe and identify slow changes to Earth's surface caused by weathering, erosion, and deposition from water, wind, and ice; and

(C) identify and classify Earth's renewable resources, including air, plants, water, and animals, and nonrenewable resources, including coal, oil, and natural gas, and the importance of conservation.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, record, and predict changes in weather;

(B) describe and illustrate the continuous movement of water above and on the surface of Earth through the water cycle and explain the role of the Sun as a major source of energy in this process; and

(C) collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in shadows, seasons, and the observable appearance of the Moon over time.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows and understands that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate that most producers need sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make their own food, while consumers are dependent on other organisms for food; and

(B) describe the flow of energy through food webs, beginning with the Sun, and predict how changes in the ecosystem affect the food web.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures and behaviors that help them survive within their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) explore how structures and functions enable organisms to survive in their environment;

(B) explore and describe examples of traits that are inherited from parents to offspring such as eye color and shapes of leaves and behaviors that are learned such as reading a book and a wolf pack teaching their pups to hunt effectively; and

(C) explore, illustrate, and compare life cycles in living organisms such as beetles, crickets, radishes, or lima beans.

§112.16.Science, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 5, scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(A) Within the physical environment, students learn about the physical properties of matter, including magnetism, mass, physical states of matter, relative density, solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate electrical and thermal energy. Students explore the uses of light, thermal, electrical, mechanical, and sound energies.

(B) Within the natural environment, students learn how changes occur on Earth's surface and that predictable patterns occur in the sky. Students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including nonrenewable and renewable.

(C) Within the living environment, students learn that structure and function of organisms can improve the survival of members of a species. Students learn to differentiate between inherited traits and learned behaviors.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 50% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves, as appropriate; and

(B) make informed choices in the conservation, disposal, and recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) describe, plan, and implement simple experimental investigations testing one variable;

(B) ask well defined questions, formulate testable hypotheses, and select and use appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record information using detailed observations and accurate measuring;

(D) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct (observable) and indirect (inferred) evidence;

(E) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results;

(F) communicate valid conclusions in both written and verbal forms; and

(G) construct appropriate simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using technology, including computers, to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) draw or develop a model that represents how something that cannot be seen such as the Sun, Earth, and Moon system and formation of sedimentary rock works or looks; and

(C) connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, prisms, mirrors, balances, spring scales, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices; and materials to support observations of habitats or organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter based on measurable, testable, and observable physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating using water as a reference point), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy;

(B) demonstrate that some mixtures maintain physical properties of their ingredients such as iron filings and sand and sand and water; and

(C) identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) explore the uses of energy, including mechanical, light, thermal, electrical, and sound energy;

(B) demonstrate that the flow of electricity in closed circuits can produce light, heat, or sound;

(C) demonstrate that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object and is reflected or travels through one medium to another and is refracted; and

(D) design a simple experimental investigation that tests the effect of force on an object.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows Earth's surface is constantly changing and consists of useful resources. The student is expected to:

(A) explore the processes that led to the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels; and

(B) recognize how landforms such as deltas, canyons, and sand dunes are the result of changes to Earth's surface by wind, water, or ice.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between weather and climate;

(B) explain how the Sun and the ocean interact in the water cycle;

(C) demonstrate that Earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours causing the day/night cycle and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky; and

(D) identify and compare the physical characteristics of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that there are relationships, systems, and cycles within environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe the way organisms live and survive in their ecosystem by interacting with the living and nonliving components;

(B) describe the flow of energy within a food web, including the roles of the Sun, producers, consumers, and decomposers;

(C) predict the effects of changes in ecosystems caused by living organisms, including humans, such as the overpopulation of grazers or the building of highways; and

(D) identify fossils as evidence of past living organisms and the nature of the environments at the time using models.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms have structures and behaviors that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the structures and functions of different species that help them live and survive in a specific environment such as hooves on prairie animals or webbed feet in aquatic animals; and

(B) differentiate between inherited traits of plants and animals such as spines on a cactus or shape of a beak and learned behaviors such as an animal learning tricks or a child riding a bicycle.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on September 5, 2017.

TRD-201703512

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 27, 2018

Proposal publication date: March 3, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§112.17 - 112.20

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§112.17.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Middle School, Adopted 2017.

The provisions of §§112.18-112.20 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2018-2019 school year.

§112.18.Science, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Grade 6 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on physical science. National standards in science are organized as multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale. The strands for Grade 6 include the following.

(A) Scientific investigations and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy.

(i) Matter can be classified as elements, compounds, or mixtures. Students have already had experience with mixtures in Grade 5, so Grade 6 will concentrate on developing an understanding of elements and compounds. It is important that students learn the differences between elements and compounds based on observations, description of physical properties, and chemical reactions. Elements are represented by chemical symbols, while compounds are represented by chemical formulas. Subsequent grades will learn about the differences at the molecular and atomic level.

(ii) Elements are classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids based on their physical properties. The elements are divided into three groups on the Periodic Table. Each different substance usually has a different density, so density can be used as an identifying property. Therefore, calculating density aids classification of substances.

(iii) Energy resources are available on a renewable or nonrenewable basis. Understanding the origins and uses of these resources enables informed decision making. Students should consider the ethical/social issues surrounding Earth's natural energy resources, while looking at the advantages and disadvantages of their long-term uses.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Energy occurs in two types, potential and kinetic, and can take several forms. Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation. It can also be changed from one form to another. Students will investigate the relationship between force and motion using a variety of means, including calculations and measurements.

(D) Earth and space. The focus of this strand is on introducing Earth's processes. Students should develop an understanding of Earth as part of our solar system. The topics include organization of our solar system, the role of gravity, and space exploration.

(E) Organisms and environments. Students will gain an understanding of the broadest taxonomic classifications of organisms and how characteristics determine their classification. The other major topics developed in this strand include the interdependence between organisms and their environments and the levels of organization within an ecosystem.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Science, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as a model of Earth's layers;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools, including journals/notebooks, beakers, Petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, hot plates, test tubes, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows the differences between elements and compounds. The student is expected to:

(A) know that an element is a pure substance represented by a chemical symbol and that a compound is a pure substance represented by a chemical formula;

(B) recognize that a limited number of the many known elements comprise the largest portion of solid Earth, living matter, oceans, and the atmosphere; and

(C) identify the formation of a new substance by using the evidence of a possible chemical change such as production of a gas, change in temperature, production of a precipitate, or color change.

(6) Matter and energy. The student knows matter has physical properties that can be used for classification. The student is expected to:

(A) compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties such as luster, conductivity, or malleability;

(B) calculate density to identify an unknown substance; and

(C) test the physical properties of minerals, including hardness, color, luster, and streak.

(7) Matter and energy. The student knows that some of Earth's energy resources are available on a nearly perpetual basis, while others can be renewed over a relatively short period of time. Some energy resources, once depleted, are essentially nonrenewable. The student is expected to research and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar resources.

(8) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows force and motion are related to potential and kinetic energy. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy;

(B) identify and describe the changes in position, direction, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces;

(C) calculate average speed using distance and time measurements;

(D) measure and graph changes in motion; and

(E) investigate how inclined planes can be used to change the amount of force to move an object.

(9) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that the Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just changes form. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation;

(B) verify through investigations that thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern from warmer to cooler until all the substances attain the same temperature such as an ice cube melting; and

(C) demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical energy to light energy.

(10) Earth and space. The student understands the structure of Earth, the rock cycle, and plate tectonics. The student is expected to:

(A) build a model to illustrate the compositional and mechanical layers of Earth, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, asthenosphere, and lithosphere;

(B) classify rocks as metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary by the processes of their formation;

(C) identify the major tectonic plates, including Eurasian, African, Indo-Australian, Pacific, North American, and South American; and

(D) describe how plate tectonics causes major geological events such as ocean basin formation, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.

(11) Earth and space. The student understands the organization of our solar system and the relationships among the various bodies that comprise it. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the physical properties, locations, and movements of the Sun, planets, moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets;

(B) understand that gravity is the force that governs the motion of our solar system; and

(C) describe the history and future of space exploration, including the types of equipment and transportation needed for space travel.

(12) Organisms and environments. The student knows all organisms are classified into domains and kingdoms. Organisms within these taxonomic groups share similar characteristics that allow them to interact with the living and nonliving parts of their ecosystem. The student is expected to:

(A) understand that all organisms are composed of one or more cells;

(B) recognize that the presence of a nucleus is a key factor used to determine whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic;

(C) recognize that the broadest taxonomic classification of living organisms is divided into currently recognized domains;

(D) identify the basic characteristics of organisms, including prokaryotic or eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular, autotrophic or heterotrophic, and mode of reproduction, that further classify them in the currently recognized kingdoms;

(E) describe biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem in which organisms interact; and

(F) diagram the levels of organization within an ecosystem, including organism, population, community, and ecosystem.

§112.19.Science, Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Grade 7 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on organisms and the environment. National standards in science are organized as multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale. The strands for Grade 7 include the following.

(A) Scientific investigation and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy. Matter and energy are conserved throughout living systems. Radiant energy from the Sun drives much of the flow of energy throughout living systems due to the process of photosynthesis in organisms described as producers. Most consumers then depend on producers to meet their energy needs. Subsequent grade levels will learn about the differences at the molecular and atomic level.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Force, motion, and energy are observed in living systems and the environment in several ways. Interactions between muscular and skeletal systems allow the body to apply forces and transform energy both internally and externally. Force and motion can also describe the direction and growth of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism. Catastrophic events of weather systems such as hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes can shape and restructure the environment through the force and motion evident in them. Weathering, erosion, and deposition occur in environments due to the forces of gravity, wind, ice, and water.

(D) Earth and space. Earth and space phenomena can be observed in a variety of settings. Both natural events and human activities can impact Earth systems. There are characteristics of Earth and relationships to objects in our solar system that allow life to exist.

(E) Organisms and environments.

(i) Students will understand the relationship between living organisms and their environment. Different environments support different living organisms that are adapted to that region of Earth. Organisms are living systems that maintain a steady state with that environment and whose balance may be disrupted by internal and external stimuli. External stimuli include human activity or the environment. Successful organisms can reestablish a balance through different processes such as a feedback mechanism. Ecological succession can be seen on a broad or small scale.

(ii) Students learn that all organisms obtain energy, get rid of wastes, grow, and reproduce. During both sexual and asexual reproduction, traits are passed onto the next generation. These traits are contained in genetic material that is found on genes within a chromosome from the parent. Changes in traits sometimes occur in a population over many generations. One of the ways a change can occur is through the process of natural selection. Students extend their understanding of structures in living systems from a previous focus on external structures to an understanding of internal structures and functions within living things.

(iii) All living organisms are made up of smaller units called cells. All cells use energy, get rid of wastes, and contain genetic material. Students will compare plant and animal cells and understand the internal structures within them that allow them to obtain energy, get rid of wastes, grow, and reproduce in different ways. Cells can organize into tissues, tissues into organs, and organs into organ systems. Students will learn the major functions of human body systems such as the ability of the integumentary system to protect against infection, injury, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation; regulate body temperature; and remove waste.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of the instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as human body systems and plant and animal cells;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Science investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools, including life science models, hand lenses, stereoscopes, microscopes, beakers, Petri dishes, microscope slides, graduated cylinders, test tubes, meter sticks, metric rulers, metric tape measures, timing devices, hot plates, balances, thermometers, calculators, water test kits, computers, temperature and pH probes, collecting nets, insect traps, globes, digital cameras, journals/notebooks, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis; and

(B) diagram the flow of energy through living systems, including food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.

(6) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical and chemical properties and can undergo physical and chemical changes. The student is expected to distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter.

(7) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that there is a relationship among force, motion, and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) illustrate the transformation of energy within an organism such as the transfer from chemical energy to thermal energy; and

(B) demonstrate and illustrate forces that affect motion in organisms such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, geotropism, and circulation of blood.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that natural events and human activity can impact Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) predict and describe how catastrophic events such as floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes impact ecosystems;

(B) analyze the effects of weathering, erosion, and deposition on the environment in ecoregions of Texas; and

(C) model the effects of human activity on groundwater and surface water in a watershed.

(9) Earth and space. The student knows components of our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the characteristics of objects in our solar system that allow life to exist such as the proximity of the Sun, presence of water, and composition of the atmosphere; and

(B) identify the accommodations, considering the characteristics of our solar system, that enabled manned space exploration.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that there is a relationship between organisms and the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe how different environments, including microhabitats in schoolyards and biomes, support different varieties of organisms;

(B) describe how biodiversity contributes to the sustainability of an ecosystem; and

(C) observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.

(11) Organisms and environments. The student knows that populations and species demonstrate variation and inherit many of their unique traits through gradual processes over many generations. The student is expected to:

(A) examine organisms or their structures such as insects or leaves and use dichotomous keys for identification;

(B) explain variation within a population or species by comparing external features, behaviors, or physiology of organisms that enhance their survival such as migration, hibernation, or storage of food in a bulb; and

(C) identify some changes in genetic traits that have occurred over several generations through natural selection and selective breeding such as the Galapagos Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) or domestic animals and hybrid plants.

(12) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and explain how internal structures of organisms have adaptations that allow specific functions such as gills in fish, hollow bones in birds, or xylem in plants;

(B) identify the main functions of the systems of the human organism, including the circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, digestive, excretory, reproductive, integumentary, nervous, and endocrine systems;

(C) recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms;

(D) differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole;

(E) compare the functions of cell organelles to the functions of an organ system; and

(F) recognize the components of cell theory.

(13) Organisms and environments. The student knows that a living organism must be able to maintain balance in stable internal conditions in response to external and internal stimuli. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how organisms respond to external stimuli found in the environment such as phototropism and fight or flight; and

(B) describe and relate responses in organisms that may result from internal stimuli such as wilting in plants and fever or vomiting in animals that allow them to maintain balance.

(14) Organisms and environments. The student knows that reproduction is a characteristic of living organisms and that the instructions for traits are governed in the genetic material. The student is expected to:

(A) define heredity as the passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next generation;

(B) compare the results of uniform or diverse offspring from asexual or sexual reproduction; and

(C) recognize that inherited traits of individuals are governed in the genetic material found in the genes within chromosomes in the nucleus.

§112.20.Science, Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Grade 8 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on earth and space science. National standards in science are organized as multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale. The strands for Grade 8 include the following.

(A) Scientific investigation and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy. Students recognize that matter is composed of atoms. Students examine information on the Periodic Table to recognize that elements are grouped into families. In addition, students understand the basic concept of conservation of mass. Lab activities will allow students to demonstrate evidence of chemical reactions. They will use chemical formulas to identify substances.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Students experiment with the relationship between forces and motion through the study of Newton's three laws. Students learn how these forces relate to geologic processes and astronomical phenomena. In addition, students recognize that these laws are evident in everyday objects and activities. Mathematics is used to calculate speed using distance and time measurements.

(D) Earth and space. Students identify the role of natural events in altering Earth systems. Cycles within Sun, Earth, and Moon systems are studied as students learn about seasons, tides, and lunar phases. Students learn that stars and galaxies are part of the universe. In addition, students use data to research scientific theories of the origin of the universe. Students will illustrate how Earth features change over time by plate tectonics. They will interpret land and erosional features on topographic maps and satellite views. Students learn how interactions in solar, weather, and ocean systems create changes in weather patterns and climate.

(E) Organisms and environments. In studies of living systems, students explore the interdependence between these systems. Students describe how biotic and abiotic factors affect the number of organisms and populations present in an ecosystem. In addition, students explore how organisms and their populations respond to short- and long-term environmental changes, including those caused by human activities.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter is composed of atoms and has chemical and physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud;

(B) identify that protons determine an element's identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity;

(C) interpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elements;

(D) recognize that chemical formulas are used to identify substances and determine the number of atoms of each element in chemical formulas containing subscripts; and

(E) investigate how evidence of chemical reactions indicates that new substances with different properties are formed and how that relates to the law of conservation of mass.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that there is a relationship between force, motion, and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object's motion;

(B) differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration; and

(C) investigate and describe applications of Newton's three laws of motion such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows the effects resulting from cyclical movements of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The student is expected to:

(A) model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun, causing changes in seasons;

(B) demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle; and

(C) relate the positions of the Moon and Sun to their effect on ocean tides.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and use models such as the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for classification;

(B) recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star located in a spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star;

(C) identify how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as visible light and radio waves are used to gain information about components in the universe; and

(D) research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories to describe the origin of the universe.

(9) Earth and space. The student knows that natural events can impact Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the historical development of evidence that supports plate tectonic theory;

(B) relate plate tectonics to the formation of crustal features; and

(C) interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and predict how these features may be reshaped by weathering.

(10) Earth and space. The student knows that climatic interactions exist among Earth, ocean, and weather systems. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that the Sun provides the energy that drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds;

(B) identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather using weather maps that show high and low pressures and fronts; and

(C) identify the role of the oceans in the formation of weather systems such as hurricanes.

(11) Organisms and environments. The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems and the environment and that human activities can affect these systems. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic factors such as food and abiotic factors such as quantity of light, water, range of temperatures, or soil composition;

(B) explore how short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations; and

(C) recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of resources have modified these systems.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on September 22, 2017.

TRD-201703513

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 27, 2018

Proposal publication date: March 3, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §§112.31, 112.34, 112.35, 112.38, 112.39

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025, which requires the SBOE by rule to determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025.

§112.31.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School.

(a) The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) The provisions of §§112.34, 112.35, 112.38, and 112.39 of this subchapter adopted in 2017 shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2018-2019 school year.

§112.34.Biology (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9, 10, or 11.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Biology. In Biology, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific practices during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students in Biology study a variety of topics that include: structures and functions of cells and viruses; growth and development of organisms; cells, tissues, and organs; nucleic acids and genetics; biological evolution; taxonomy; metabolism and energy transfers in living organisms; living systems; homeostasis; and ecosystems and the environment.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5) Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(6) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F) collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as data-collecting probes, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettes, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures;

(G) analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(H) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment;

(E) evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events; and

(F) research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including their complexity, and compare and contrast scientific explanations for cellular complexity;

(B) investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and transport of molecules; and

(C) compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms;

(B) describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation; and

(C) recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the mechanisms of genetics such as the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics. The student is expected to:

(A) identify components of DNA, identify how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and examine scientific explanations for the origin of DNA;

(B) recognize that components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms;

(C) explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA;

(D) recognize that gene expression is a regulated process;

(E) identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes;

(F) predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance; and

(G) recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies, including anatomical, molecular, and developmental;

(B) examine scientific explanations of abrupt appearance and stasis in the fossil record;

(C) analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals;

(D) analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive success;

(E) analyze and evaluate the relationship of natural selection to adaptation and to the development of diversity in and among species; and

(F) analyze other evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and recombination.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that taxonomy is a branching classification based on the shared characteristics of organisms and can change as new discoveries are made. The student is expected to:

(A) define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standardized taxonomic system to the scientific community;

(B) categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences shared among groups; and

(C) compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;

(B) compare the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy, energy conversions, and matter; and

(C) identify and investigate the role of enzymes.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals;

(B) describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction, and response in plants; and

(C) analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems; and

(B) describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret relationships, including predation, parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, and competition, among organisms;

(B) compare variations and adaptations of organisms in different ecosystems;

(C) analyze the flow of matter and energy through trophic levels using various models, including food chains, food webs, and ecological pyramids;

(D) describe the flow of matter through the carbon and nitrogen cycles and explain the consequences of disrupting these cycles; and

(E) describe how environmental change can impact ecosystem stability.

§112.35.Chemistry (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Required prerequisites: one unit of high school science and Algebra I. Suggested prerequisite: completion of or concurrent enrollment in a second year of mathematics. This course is recommended for students in Grade 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Chemistry. In Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific practices during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include characteristics of matter, use of the Periodic Table, development of atomic theory and chemical bonding, chemical stoichiometry, gas laws, solution chemistry, thermochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Students will investigate how chemistry is an integral part of our daily lives.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific practices of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(6) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers;

(B) know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS); and

(C) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, electronic balances, an adequate supply of consumable chemicals, and sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, and burettes;

(F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;

(G) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;

(H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(I) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe the connection between chemistry and future careers; and

(F) describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties;

(B) identify extensive properties such as mass and volume and intensive properties such as density and melting point;

(C) compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of compressibility, structure, shape, and volume; and

(D) classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.

(5) Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the Periodic Table and can apply its predictive power. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table;

(B) identify and explain the properties of chemical families, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals, using the Periodic Table; and

(C) interpret periodic trends, including atomic radius, electronegativity, and ionization energy, using the Periodic Table.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory, including Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, and Bohr's nuclear atom;

(B) describe the mathematical relationships between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light using the electromagnetic spectrum;

(C) calculate average atomic mass of an element using isotopic composition; and

(D) express the arrangement of electrons in atoms of representative elements using electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds. The student is expected to:

(A) name ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature rules;

(B) write the chemical formulas of ionic compounds containing representative elements, transition metals and common polyatomic ions, covalent compounds, and acids and bases;

(C) construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bonds;

(D) describe metallic bonding and explain metallic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility; and

(E) classify molecular structure for molecules with linear, trigonal planar, and tetrahedral electron pair geometries as explained by Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.

(8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) define and use the concept of a mole;

(B) calculate the number of atoms or molecules in a sample of material using Avogadro's number;

(C) calculate percent composition of compounds;

(D) differentiate between empirical and molecular formulas;

(E) write and balance chemical equations using the law of conservation of mass;

(F) differentiate among double replacement reactions, including acid-base reactions and precipitation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions such as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, and combustion reactions;

(G) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass and gas volume relationships between reactants and products and percent yield; and

(H) describe the concept of limiting reactants in a balanced chemical equation.

(9) Science concepts. The student understands the principles of ideal gas behavior, kinetic molecular theory, and the conditions that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and calculate the relations between volume, pressure, number of moles, and temperature for an ideal gas as described by Boyle's law, Charles' law, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure, and the ideal gas law; and

(B) describe the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.

(10) Science concepts. The student understands and can apply the factors that influence the behavior of solutions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the unique role of water in solutions in terms of polarity;

(B) apply the general rules regarding solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions;

(C) calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity;

(D) calculate the dilutions of solutions using molarity;

(E) distinguish among types of solutions such as electrolytes and nonelectrolytes; unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions; and strong and weak acids and bases;

(F) investigate factors that influence solid and gas solubilities and rates of dissolution such as temperature, agitation, and surface area;

(G) define acids and bases and distinguish between Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry definitions and predict products in acid-base reactions that form water; and

(H) define pH and calculate the pH of a solution using the hydrogen ion concentration.

(11) Science concepts. The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal energies;

(B) describe the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer in terms of calorimetry;

(C) classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic and represent energy changes that occur in chemical reactions using thermochemical equations or graphical analysis; and

(D) perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat.

(12) Science concepts. The student understands the basic processes of nuclear chemistry. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radioactive decay processes in terms of balanced nuclear equations; and

(B) compare fission and fusion reactions.

§112.38.Integrated Physics and Chemistry (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9 or 10.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Integrated Physics and Chemistry. In Integrated Physics and Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific practices during investigation, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. This course integrates the disciplines of physics and chemistry in the following topics: force, motion, energy, and matter.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific practices) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5) Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(6) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers;

(B) know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS); and

(C) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific practices during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(C) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;

(D) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(E) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe connections between physics and chemistry and future careers; and

(F) research and describe the history of physics and chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and calculate an object's motion in terms of position, displacement, speed, and acceleration;

(B) measure and graph distance and speed as a function of time;

(C) investigate how an object's motion changes only when a net force is applied, including activities and equipment such as toy cars, vehicle restraints, sports activities, and classroom objects;

(D) describe and calculate the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration using equipment such as dynamic carts, moving toys, vehicles, and falling objects;

(E) explain the concept of conservation of momentum using action and reaction forces;

(F) describe the gravitational attraction between objects of different masses at different distances; and

(G) examine electrical force as a universal force between any two charged objects.

(5) Science concepts. The student recognizes multiple forms of energy and knows the impact of energy transfer and energy conservation in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and demonstrate that objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy such as vibration of atoms, water flowing down a stream moving pebbles, and bowling balls knocking down pins;

(B) recognize and demonstrate common forms of potential energy, including gravitational, elastic, and chemical, such as a ball on an inclined plane, springs, and batteries;

(C) demonstrate that moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces;

(D) investigate the law of conservation of energy;

(E) investigate and demonstrate the movement of thermal energy through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation such as in weather, living, and mechanical systems;

(F) evaluate the transfer of electrical energy in series and parallel circuits and conductive materials;

(G) explore the characteristics and behaviors of energy transferred by waves, including acoustic, seismic, light, and waves on water, as they reflect, refract, diffract, interfere with one another, and are absorbed by materials;

(H) analyze energy transformations of renewable and nonrenewable resources; and

(I) critique the advantages and disadvantages of various energy sources and their impact on society and the environment.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that relationships exist between the structure and properties of matter. The student is expected to:

(A) examine differences in physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases as explained by the arrangement and motion of atoms or molecules;

(B) relate chemical properties of substances to the arrangement of their atoms;

(C) analyze physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds such as color, density, viscosity, buoyancy, boiling point, freezing point, conductivity, and reactivity;

(D) relate the placement of an element on the Periodic Table to its physical and chemical behavior, including bonding and classification;

(E) relate the structure of water to its function as a solvent; and

(F) investigate the properties of water solutions and factors affecting solid solubility, including nature of solute, temperature, and concentration.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate changes of state as it relates to the arrangement of particles of matter and energy transfer;

(B) recognize that chemical changes can occur when substances react to form different substances and that these interactions are largely determined by the valence electrons;

(C) demonstrate that mass is conserved when substances undergo chemical change and that the number and kind of atoms are the same in the reactants and products;

(D) classify energy changes that accompany chemical reactions such as those occurring in heat packs, cold packs, and glow sticks as exothermic or endothermic reactions;

(E) describe types of nuclear reactions such as fission and fusion and their roles in applications such as medicine and energy production; and

(F) research and describe the environmental and economic impact of the end-products of chemical reactions such as those that may result in acid rain, degradation of water and air quality, and ozone depletion.

§112.39.Physics (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Algebra I is suggested as a prerequisite or corequisite. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9, 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Physics. In Physics, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific practices during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: laws of motion; changes within physical systems and conservation of energy and momentum; forces; thermodynamics; characteristics and behavior of waves; and atomic, nuclear, and quantum physics. Students who successfully complete Physics will acquire factual knowledge within a conceptual framework, practice experimental design and interpretation, work collaboratively with colleagues, and develop critical-thinking skills.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable by empirical science.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(6) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but may be subject to change;

(D) design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness, and identifying causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data;

(E) demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), balances, batteries, dynamics demonstration equipment, collision apparatus, lab masses, magnets, plane mirrors, convex lenses, stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, graph paper, magnetic compasses, protractors, metric rulers, spring scales, thermometers, slinky springs, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results;

(F) use a wide variety of additional course apparatus, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as ripple tank with wave generator, wave motion rope, tuning forks, hand-held visual spectroscopes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), electromagnetic spectrum charts, laser pointers, micrometer, caliper, computer, data acquisition probes, scientific calculators, graphing technology, electrostatic kits, electroscope, inclined plane, optics bench, optics kit, polarized film, prisms, pulley with table clamp, motion detectors, photogates, friction blocks, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tube, stroboscope, resistors, copper wire, switches, iron filings, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results;

(G) make measurements with accuracy and precision and record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) units;

(H) organize, evaluate, and make inferences from data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs;

(I) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through various methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports; and

(J) express relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) explain the impacts of the scientific contributions of a variety of historical and contemporary scientists on scientific thought and society;

(D) research and describe the connections between physics and future careers; and

(E) express, manipulate, and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows and applies the laws governing motion in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and interpret graphs and charts describing different types of motion, including investigations using real-time technology such as motion detectors or photogates;

(B) describe and analyze motion in one dimension using equations and graphical vector addition with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, frames of reference, and acceleration;

(C) analyze and describe accelerated motion in two dimensions, including using equations, graphical vector addition, and projectile and circular examples; and

(D) calculate the effect of forces on objects, including the law of inertia, the relationship between force and acceleration, and the nature of force pairs between objects using methods, including free-body force diagrams.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the nature of forces in the physical world. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the concepts of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces;

(B) describe and calculate how the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their masses and the distance between their centers;

(C) describe and calculate how the magnitude of the electric force between two objects depends on their charges and the distance between their centers;

(D) identify and describe examples of electric and magnetic forces and fields in everyday life such as generators, motors, and transformers;

(E) characterize materials as conductors or insulators based on their electric properties; and

(F) investigate and calculate current through, potential difference across, resistance of, and power used by electric circuit elements connected in both series and parallel combinations.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and applies the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and calculate quantities using the work-energy theorem in various situations;

(B) investigate examples of kinetic and potential energy and their transformations;

(C) calculate the mechanical energy of, power generated within, impulse applied to, and momentum of a physical system;

(D) demonstrate and apply the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum in one dimension; and

(E) explain everyday examples that illustrate the four laws of thermodynamics and the processes of thermal energy transfer.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves. The student is expected to:

(A) examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave propagation in various types of media;

(B) investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and calculate using the relationship between wavespeed, frequency, and wavelength;

(C) compare characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum, and characteristics and behaviors of longitudinal waves, including sound waves;

(D) investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance, and the Doppler effect; and

(E) describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows simple examples of atomic, nuclear, and quantum phenomena. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the photoelectric effect and the dual nature of light;

(B) compare and explain the emission spectra produced by various atoms;

(C) calculate and describe the applications of mass-energy equivalence; and

(D) give examples of applications of atomic and nuclear phenomena using the standard model such as nuclear stability, fission and fusion, radiation therapy, diagnostic imaging, semiconductors, superconductors, solar cells, and nuclear power and examples of applications of quantum phenomena.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on September 5, 2017.

TRD-201703514

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 27, 2018

Proposal publication date: March 3, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 128. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SPANISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING AND ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

The State Board of Education (SBOE) adopts new §§128.1-128.7 and 128.20-128.23, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Spanish language arts and reading and English as a second language. New §128.1 and §128.20 are adopted without changes to the proposed text as published in the March 3, 2017, issue of the Texas Register (42 TexReg 928) and will not be republished. New §§128.2-128.7 and 128.21-128.23 are adopted with changes to the proposed text as published in the March 3, 2017, issue of the Texas Register (42 TexReg 928). The adopted new sections add new Spanish language arts and reading and English as a second language TEKS for elementary and middle school for implementation in the 2019-2020 school year.

REASONED JUSTIFICATION. Applications for appointment to English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees were accepted by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) from March 5, 2015, through April 6, 2015. The applications received were provided to SBOE members at the April 2015 meeting, and nominations for English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees and appointments of expert reviewers were made in spring 2015. Committee members were notified of the appointment in July 2015. The expert reviewers completed their review of the current TEKS and submitted initial reports to the SBOE in July 2015. Committee members participated in a training webinar in August 2015 in preparation for the first face-to-face meeting. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened in Austin in September 2015 to begin work on draft recommendations for the TEKS. The committees convened again in November 2015 to complete their initial draft recommendations.

In December 2015, the first draft recommendations were provided to the board and to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website for informal public feedback. In accordance with the board's review process, each of the expert reviewers and one member of each TEKS review committee presented invited testimony at the January 2016 meeting.

The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened for a third time in February 2016 in order to review feedback and work on the vertical alignment of the TEKS across grade levels and subjects. At the request of the board chair, representatives from each of the vertical alignment committees were asked to attend the April 2016 meeting to answer questions from board members. At that time, the board provided additional direction for the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committee members to address at their next meeting.

The committees met for a fourth time in April 2016 to address the board's direction and finalize their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committees' final recommendations were provided to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website in June 2016.

Representatives from the TEKS review committees convened in Austin in June 2016 to review the drafts and provide feedback regarding whether the recommended TEKS for each grade level or course can reasonably be taught within the amount of time typically allotted for the subject or course prior to the end 28 the school year or a state end-of-course assessment required by Texas Education Code (TEC), §39.023, as applicable.

At the July 2016 meeting, the committee heard invited testimony from board-appointed expert reviewers regarding their feedback on the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees' final recommendations. At that meeting, the board discussed next steps, reviewed timeline considerations for issuance of a proclamation for instructional materials for English and Spanish language arts and reading, and requested that staff make technical edits to the proposed revisions. The board also requested that the SBOE-appointed experts review the edited final recommendations and make suggestions to ensure the appropriate vertical alignment of the proposed TEKS. Additionally, the board requested feedback on the proposed revisions to the English language arts and reading TEKS from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. The expert reviewers met in August 2016 and again in November 2016 to work on their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The expert reviewers also met virtually with representatives from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board panel to discuss higher education recommendations. Drafts resulting from that work were provided at the November 2016 meeting. At that time, the SBOE requested that the expert reviewers finalize their recommendations. The expert reviewers conducted virtual meetings in November 2016 and December 2016 to complete their recommendations.

The proposed new kindergarten-Grade 12 English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS were presented for first reading and filing authorization at the January/February 2017 meeting, and a public hearing on the proposed new sections was held at that time. At the meeting, the SBOE approved for first reading and filing authorization proposed new English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS for kindergarten-Grade 8. However, the board postponed first reading and filing authorization on proposed new English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS for high school until the April 2017 meeting.

At the April 2017 SBOE meeting, the committee recommended changes to proposed new 19 TAC Chapter 110, Subchapters A and B, and 19 TAC Chapter 128, Subchapters A and B, for second reading and final adoption. The SBOE postponed second reading and final adoption of 19 TAC Chapter 110, Subchapters A and B, and 19 TAC Chapter 128, Subchapters A and B, to a special meeting in May to provide additional time for the board and TEA staff to ensure that the changes were accurately incorporated into the TEKS. The delay did not extend the public comment period on these standards.

The new sections were approved by the SBOE for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017, meeting and for second reading and final adoption at its May 10, 2017, meeting.

In accordance with the TEC, §7.102(f), the SBOE approved the new sections for adoption by a vote of two-thirds of its members to specify an effective date earlier than the beginning of the 2018-2019 school year. The earlier effective date will enable districts to begin preparing for implementation of the revised English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS.

The following changes were made to adopted new 19 TAC Chapter 128, Subchapters A and B, since published as proposed, including conforming edits as directed by the SBOE.

§128.2, Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

New subsection (a)(3) was added to read, "Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(1)(A) was amended to add the phrase "and answer questions using multi-word responses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(1)(B) was amended to add the phrase "restate and" before "follow directions."

Knowledge and skills statements in subsections (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(ii) was amended to replace the phrase "spoken onset" with "simple syllable."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(viii) was amended to change "one syllable words" to "syllables."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(x) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(ii) was amended to add "multisyllabic words" after two-syllable words and include "CCVC and CVCCV" to the list of letter-sound relationships that students are expected to use to apply and demonstrate phonetic knowledge.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(iii) was added to read, "decoding words with silent h and consonant digraphs such as /ch/, /rr/, and /ll."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(iii) was renumbered as (b)(2)(B)(iv) and amended to strike "letters of" before syllables.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(C)(ii) was amended to add "syllabic" before patterns and to include "VC, CCV, CCVCV, AND CVCCV " to the list of letter-sound relationships that students are expected to spell.

Knowledge and skills statement (b)(5) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(B) was amended to add written responses to the list of types of responses to texts students are expected to provide.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature and to change the list of types of children's literature to illustrative examples.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace "participate in and identify main characters in a play" with "discuss main characters in drama."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D)(i) was amended to strike main idea from and add supporting evidence to the characteristics and structures of informational text that students are expected to recognize.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(9) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "including the difference between ser and estar" after verbs.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(iv) was amended to eliminate descriptive adjectives and to add articles to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts with adult assistance.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(v) was added to include prepositions in the list of the standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts with adult assistance.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(vi) was added to include personal pronouns and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(D)(ix) was added to read, "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(E) was added to read "share writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(E) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§128.3, Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" "and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

New subsection (a)(3) was added to read, "Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection(b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

Knowledge and skills statements in subsections (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(ii) was amended to replace the phrase "spoken onset" with "simple syllable."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(iii) was amended to replace the word "phoneme" with "syllable."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(iv) was amended to strike the phrase "one-syllable" and replace the word "phoneme" with "syllable."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(v) was amended to replace the phrase "phonemes to form one-syllable words" with "complex syllables" and "consonant blends" with "sílabas trabadas to form multisyllabic words."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(vi) was amended to strike the phrase "one-syllable" after spoken, "of three to five phonemes" after words, and "individual phonemes" after syllables. The student expectation was also amended to replace "consonant blends" with silabas trabadas.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(vii) was amended to replace the word "phonemes" with "syllables" and to strike the word "base" before words.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(ii) was amended to replace the phrase "in isolation and in context with all vowel and consonant sounds" with "sílabas trabadas such as /bla/, /bra/, and /gla/; digraphs; and words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(iii) was amended to replace the phrase "consonant digraphs such as /ch/, /rr/, and /ll/ and consonant blends such as /bl/, /br/, /gl/, and /gr/" with "silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(C)(ii) was amended to add "VC, CCV, CCVCV, AND CVCCV" to the list of letter-sound relationships that students are expected to spell.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(C)(iii) was amended to add "silent h" before consonant digraphs and to replace "consonant blends" with "silabas trabadas" and " bl/, /br/, /gl/, and /gr/" with "/bla/, /bra/, /gla/, and /gra/."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(C)(iv) was amended to replace "three- to four-syllable words" with "multisyllabic words, including words with que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(C)(vi) was amended to replace "/ei/" with "/ie/" and to identify "quie-ro, na-die, and ra-dio" as examples of diphthongs with /ai/, /au/, and /ie/ rather than hiatus such as le-er and rí-o.

Student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(C) was relocated and renumbered as (b)(3)(D).

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "how their feelings and actions change" with "and the reason(s) for their actions."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to change the phrase "elements of a play" to "elements of drama."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to strike main idea and add supporting evidence to the characteristics and structures of informational text that students are expected to recognize.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to replace "temporal sequence and description" with "organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to change the word "verbs" to "verb tense" and to add the phrase "including the difference between ser and estar."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to eliminate descriptive adjectives and to add articles to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vii) was amended to add the phrase "including the use of personal and possessive pronouns, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was added to read, "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules with adult assistance."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(C) was amended to add the phrase "such as thank you notes or letters."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(E) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§128.4, Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

New subsection (a)(3) was added to read, "Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

Knowledge and skills statements in subsections (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(ii) was amended to replace the phrase "with consonant blends and digraphs" with "decoding words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(A)(iii) was added to read, "decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(ii) was deleted.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(v) was added to read, "spelling words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(E) was added to read, "differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien."

Knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(B) was amended to add the phrase "that demonstrate an understanding of the text" after informational texts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace the word "problem" with the word "conflict."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(B) was amended to replace "describe the internal and external traits of the main character(s)" with "explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to change the phrase "elements of a play" to "elements of drama."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to eliminate main idea from and add supporting evidence to the characteristics and structures of informational text that students are expected to recognize.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to add the phrase "organizational patterns such as" before chronological order.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(E)(ii) was added to require that students must distinguish facts from opinion in persuasive text.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(F) was amended to add the phrase "identify and" before the word "explain."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to replace the word "verbs" with "verb tense."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to change the word "verbs" to "verb tense" and to add the phrase "including the difference between ser and estar."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iii) was amended to add the phrase "gender-specific" before articles.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to eliminate descriptive adjectives and to add articles to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(v) was amended to add the phrase "and adverbs that convey place" after adverbs that convey time.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vii) was amended to add the phrase "including personal, possessive, and objective, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was added to read, "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(C) was amended to add the phrase "such as thank you notes or letters."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(G) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§128.5, Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

New subsection (a)(3) was added to read, "Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

Knowledge and skills statements in subsections (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(i) was amended to add "palabras agudas" (words with an accent on the last syllable) as a type of word students are expected to spell.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(xi) was amended to replace the phrase "consonant blends" with "sílabas trabadas."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(D) was amended to add "homophones" to the list of kinds of words students are expected to identify and use and for which students are expected to explain the meaning.

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(B) was amended to change the word "relationship" to "relationships."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace the word "problem" with the word "conflict."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to change "elements of a play" to "elements of drama."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(ii) was amended to strike the phrase "of the text" after understanding.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to add the phrase "organizational patterns such as."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(G) was amended to add the phrase "identify and" before the word "explain" and to replace the word "repetition" with "hyperbole."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to add the word "simple" to the modify the types of verb tenses in the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts and to add the phrase "including the difference between ser and estar."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to strike the phrase "descriptive and limiting adjectives" and to add the phrase " including their comparative and superlative form" after adjectives. The student expectation was also amended to replace the word "articles" with "forms."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vii) was amended to add personal, objective, and reflective pronouns to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(viii) was amended to move the word "subjects" before the word "predicates."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was added to read, "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules."

Student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(A) was amended to strike the "fiction" from the list of literary texts students are expected to write and add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

Student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(B) was amended to add "brief compositions that convey information to about a topic" as a type of informational text that students are expected to write. The student expectation was also amended to add using "a clear central idea" as a genre characteristic of informational text that students are expected to use.

Student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(H) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§128.6, Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

New subsection (a)(3) was added to read, "Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development."

Knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(E) was deleted.

Knowledge and skills statement (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response to compare and contrast" with "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well- known children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to replace " identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes " explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(ii) was amended to strike the phrase "of the text."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to add the phrase "organizational patterns such as."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(G) was amended to add the phrase "and explain" after the word "identify" and to replace the word "hyperbole" with "anecdote."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(i) was amended to add "avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iii) was amended to replace the phrase "and correlating articles when applicable" with "including gender-specific articles" after proper nouns.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to strike the word "descriptive" before adjectives.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(v) was amended to add "adverbs that convey degree" to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts and to strike the word "intensity."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vii) was amended to add personal, possessive, objective, and prepositional pronouns to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(viii) was amended to move the word "subjects" before the word "predicates."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was amended to add "commas in compound sentences" to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was added to read, "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(A) was amended to strike the "fiction" from the list of literary texts students are expected to write and add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(B) add "brief compositions that convey information to about a topic" as a type of informational text that students are expected to write. The student expectation was also amended to add "a clear central idea" as a genre characteristic of informational text that students are expected to use.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(H) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word multi-modal.

§128.7, Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

New subsection (a)(3) was added to read, "Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection(b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

Knowledge and skills statements in subsections (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading and writing."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response to compare and contrast" with "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(A) was amended to specify that students must demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to replace "explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions" with " identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(ii) was amended to strike the phrase "of text" after understanding.

Student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(iii) was amended to add the phrase "organizational patterns such as" before logical order.

A new student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read, "recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(G) was amended to add "anecdote" after stereotyping.

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(11) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(i) was amended to add "avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "past tense of" before irregular verbs.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(iv) was amended to strike the word "descriptive."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(v) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(viii) was renumbered as (b)(11)(D)(vii) and amended to add personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, and prepositional pronouns to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ix) was renumbered as (b)(11)(D)(viii) and amended to replace the word "correlative" with "subordinating" and to add the phrase "to form complex sentences" after conjunctions.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was renumbered as (b)(11)(D)(x) and amended to add the phrase "italics and underlining for titles and emphasis, and quotation marks for titles" from (b)(11)(D)(xii).

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xii) was deleted.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was added to read, "correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was subsumed into student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) and deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(A) was amended to add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(B) was amended to include "brief compositions that convey information to about a topic" as a type of informational text that students are expected to write. The student expectation was also amended to add "a clear central idea" as a genre characteristic of informational text that students are expected to use.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(H) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§128.22, Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

New subsection (a)(3) was added to read, "Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection(b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

Knowledge and skills statements in subsections (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(E) was deleted.

Knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response with accurate text evidence to compare" with "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to replace the word "describe" with "analyze" and to strike the phrase "of their plays."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D) was amended to replace "compare and contrast historical and cultural settings across texts" with "analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to replace "identify the elements of a play, including acts, scenes, stage directions, and scripted dialogue" with "analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with "analyze" and to replace "structures" with "structural elements."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(ii) was amended to strike the phrase "of the text."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(E) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with "analyze."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was added to read, "analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "identify and" and to replace the phrase "the use of hyperbole and sarcasm in texts" with "rhetorical devices and logical fallacies."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(B)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "paragraph-to-paragraph" and add "within and across paragraphs."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(i) was amended to add "avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "appropriate use of" before verb tenses.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(v) was amended to add personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, prepositional and relative pronouns to the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vi) was amended to add the phrase "to form complex sentences" after conjunctions.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(viii) was amended to add the phrase "punctuation marks, including" before commas, strike the phrase "compound and" before complex sentences, strike the phrase "and after" before transitions, and replace the phrase "words and phrases" with "elements."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ix) was struck from the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was struck from the list of standard Spanish conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(C) was amended to add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(G)(i) was amended by adding the phrase "credibility and bias."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(G)(ii) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(J) was amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§128.23, English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

Subsection (a)(2) of the introduction was revised to strike the sentences related to encoding and decoding.

New subsection (a)(3) was added to read, "Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development."

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

Knowledge and skills statements in subsections (b)(2)-(13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(1)(E) was moved and renumbered as (b)(1)(D).

The student expectation in subsection (b)(1)(D) was renumbered as (b)(1)(E).

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(A) was amended to strike the phrase "including dictionaries, thesauri, or glossaries."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(C) was moved and renumbered as new (b)(3)(D).

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(D) was renumbered as (b)(3)(C) and amended to strike the phrase "use and."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(4) was amended to add the phrase "use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) and adjust" after the phrase "the student is expected to" and to strike the phrase "and use appropriate rate, accuracy, and prosody when reading grade-level text" after reading purpose.

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts." The knowledge and skills statement was also amended to add the phrase "Based on the student's language proficiency level" before "the student is expected to."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response with accurate text evidence to compare" with "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(9) was amended to change the strand "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to replace the word "describe" with "analyze" and to delete the phrase "of their plays."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with "analyze" and to replace "structures" with "structural elements."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(ii) was amended to strike "graphic and text" and to add the phrase "references or acknowledgements."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(E) was deleted to align with the Grade 7 TEKS for English language arts and reading.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with "analyze."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F)(ii) was deleted.

New student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was added to read, "analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(10) was amended to change the word "use" to "uses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(G) was amended to replace "identify and explain loaded language, strawmen, and ad hominem arguments" with "explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(B)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "paragraph-to-paragraph" and add "within and across paragraphs."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(i) was amended to add "avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "appropriate use of" before verb tenses.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(v) was amended to replace "relative pronouns" with "pronoun-antecedent agreement" in the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vi) was amended to replace the phrase such as "since, while, and until to form complex sentences" with the phrase "to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(viii) was amended to replace "commas in compound and complex sentences and after transitions, introductory words, and phrases" with "punctuation, including commas to set off words, phrases, clauses, and semicolons" in the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ix) was struck from the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was struck from the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was renumbered as (b)(11)(D)(ix) and amended to add the terms "its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too" as examples of commonly confused terms that students are expected to spell correctly when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(C) was amended to add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(G)(i) was renumbered as (b)(13)(H)(i) and amended by adding the phrase "credibility and bias."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(G)(ii) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(K) was renumbered as (b)(13)(J) and amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

§128.24, English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8, Adopted 2017

Subsection (a)(1) of the introduction was revised to add the phrase "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing" and to change the reference to "author's craft" to "author's purpose and craft."

Subsection (a)(2) of the introduction was revised to strike the sentences related to encoding and decoding.

The knowledge and skills statements in subsection (b)(1) was amended to add "and thinking" after "listening, speaking, and discussion."

Knowledge and skills statements in subsections (2) - (13) were amended to add "and thinking" after the four domains of language, "listening, speaking, reading, and writing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(1)(F) was moved and renumbered as (b)(1)(E).

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(A) was amended to strike the phrase "including dictionaries, thesauri, or glossaries."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(C) was moved and renumbered as new (b)(3)(D).

The student expectation in subsection (b)(3)(D) was renumbered as (b)(3)(C) and amended to strike the phrase "use and."

Knowledge and skills statement in subsection (b)(6) was amended to replace the phrase "comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity" with "both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(B) was amended to replace the phrase "a response with accurate text evidence to compare" with "responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(A) was amended to replace "relationships among thematic development, characterization, point of view, setting, and plot in a variety of literary texts" with "how themes are developed through the interaction of characters and events."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D) was amended to replace the word "describe" with "analyze."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(E) was amended to replace the word "recognize" with "analyze" and to replace "structures" with "structural elements."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(E)(i) was amended to add the phrase "with supporting evidence."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(E)(ii) was amended to add the phrase "features such as" before footnotes.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(F) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was renumbered as (b)(9)(F) and amended to replace the word "recognize" with "analyze."

New student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was added to read, "analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(10)(G) was amended to replace "identify and explain the use of rhetorical questions, bandwagon appeals, and sweeping generalizations" with "explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as analogy and juxtaposition and of logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and circular reasoning."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(B)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "paragraph-to-paragraph" and add "within and across paragraphs."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(i) was amended to add "with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments" to the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to add the phrases "appropriate use of" and "and active and passive voice."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(v) was amended to replace "relative pronouns" with "pronoun-antecedent agreement" in the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(vi) was amended to add "semicolons, colons, and parentheses" as types of punctuation that students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ix) was subsumed into (b)(11)(D)(viii) and deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was struck from the list of standard English conventions students are expected to use when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(xi) was renumbered as (b)(11)(D)(ix) and amended to add the terms "its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too" as examples of commonly confused terms that students are expected to spell correctly when editing drafts.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(C) was amended to add the phrase "using genre characteristics and craft."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(G)(i) was renumbered as (b)(13)(H)(i) and amended by adding the phrase "credibility and bias, including omission."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(G)(ii) was deleted.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(13)(K) was renumbered as (b)(13)(J) and amended to eliminate the hyphen from the word "multi-modal."

SUMMARY OF COMMENTS AND RESPONSES. Following is a summary of the public comments received and the corresponding responses regarding the proposed new 19 TAC Chapter 128, Subchapters A and B.

Comment. One individual from out-of-state asked when the proposed revisions to the Spanish language arts and reading TEKS would be translated into Spanish.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for proposed revisions to the Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The commenter stated that the arrangement of the TEKS and amount of time needed for instruction seem appropriate.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the arrangement and scope of the proposed Spanish language arts and reading is appropriate.

Comment. The Texas Association for Bilingual Education (TABE) expressed support for limiting the Spanish language arts and reading TEKS to kindergarten-Grade 6.

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to adopt proposed new TEKS for Spanish language arts and reading for kindergarten-Grade 6.

Comment. TABE recommends that the Spanish language arts and reading TEKS be based on what is known about the structure of Spanish.

Response. The SBOE agrees. The SBOE also took action to approve additional changes to better align the Spanish language arts and reading TEKS with the structure of Spanish to respond to other comments.

Comment. TABE stated that the Spanish language has a more closely aligned symbol sound relationship than English; therefore, the substrand related to phonological awareness in kindergarten and Grade 1 is not appropriate for Spanish language arts and reading.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the phonological awareness substrand is appropriately included for Spanish language arts and reading at kindergarten and Grade 1. The SBOE also approved additional changes to student expectations in the phonological awareness substrand to respond to other comments.

Comment. TABE questioned why identifying and producing rhyming words are included at kindergarten for Spanish language arts and reading.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that identifying and producing rhyming words are appropriately included for Spanish language arts and reading at kindergarten.

Comment. TABE questioned why student blending and segmenting phonemes are included at kindergarten for Spanish language arts and reading.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that blending phonemes is appropriately included for Spanish language arts and reading at kindergarten; however, the SBOE agrees that segmenting phonemes is not appropriately included. In response to this and other comments the SBOE took action to strike references to segmenting phonemes at kindergarten.

Comment. TABE questioned why students are asked to generate rhyming words at Grade 1 for Spanish language arts and reading.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that generating rhyming words is appropriately included for Spanish language arts and reading at Grade 1.

Comment. TABE stated that §128.3(2)(A)(iii)-(vii) are based on the structure of English rather than Spanish.

Response. The SBOE agrees. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend student expectations §128.3(2)(A)(iii)-(vii) to better align with the structure of the Spanish language.

Comment. TABE questioned whether it is necessary to devote an entire student expectation to contractions in Spanish when the examples listed, al and del, are the only contractions in Spanish.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that a student expectation regarding the Spanish contractions al and del is appropriately included.

Comment. TABE expressed concern regarding the heavy emphasis on accents in Grade 3. The commenter recommended adding student expectations at Grade 2 that familiarize students with accents in questions and exclamations as well as with diacritical accents such as se/sé, el/él, and mas/más.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that accents are appropriately introduced in Grade 3 as proposed.

Comment. One administrator stated that student expectation §128.28(c)(3)(B) is unclear and recommended rewording the student expectation to read "use techniques such as compare/contrast or cause/effect to clarify the meaning of words in context" or "understand context by using techniques such as compare/ contrast or cause/effect to determine the meaning of words."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the language in student expectation §128.23(c)(3)(B) is appropriately clear.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§128.1 - 128.7

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are adopted under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§128.2.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively and ask questions to understand information and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) restate and follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) identifying and producing rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same simple syllable or initial sound;

(iii) identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

(iv) identifying syllables in spoken words;

(v) blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

(vii) identifying initial and final sounds in simple words;

(viii) blending spoken phonemes to form syllables; and

(ix) manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

(ii) using letter-sound relationships to decode one- and two-syllable words and multisyllabic words, including CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and consonant digraphs such as/ch/,/rr/, and/ll/; and

(iv) recognizing that new words are created when syllables are changed, added, or deleted;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling common letter and sound correlations; and

(ii) spelling words with common syllabic patterns such as CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by:

(i) identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

(ii) holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

(iii) recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

(iv) recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

(v) identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

(C) identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) provide an oral, pictorial, or written response to a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) identify and describe the main character(s);

(C) describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud with adult assistance; and

(D) describe the setting.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems;

(C) discuss main characters in drama;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) titles and simple graphics to gain information; and

(iii) the steps in a sequence with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss with adult assistance the author's purpose for writing texts;

(B) discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts with adult assistance using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences;

(ii) verbs, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular and plural nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) prepositions;

(vi) pronouns, including personal, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú;

(vii) capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and names;

(viii) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and

(ix) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) share writing.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and

(B) dictate or compose informational texts.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.3.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself and others, relating experiences to a classmate, and expressing needs and feelings.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same simple syllable or initial sound;

(iii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified syllable is added, changed, or removed;

(iv) segmenting spoken words into individual syllables;

(v) blending spoken complex syllables, including sílabas trabadas, to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting spoken words into syllables, including words with sílabas trabadas; and

(vii) manipulating syllables within words;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching sounds to individual letters;

(ii) decoding words with sílabas trabadas such as/bla/,/bra/, and/gla/; digraphs; and words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(iv) decoding words with diphthongs such as/ai/,/au/, and/ei/;

(v) decoding contractions such as al and del;

(vi) decoding three- to four-syllable words;

(vii) using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words; and

(viii) decoding words with common prefixes and suffixes;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling common letter and sound correlations;

(ii) spelling words with common patterns such as CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV;

(iii) spelling words with silent h; consonant digraphs such as/ch/,/rr/, and/ll/; and sílabas trabadas such as/bla/,/bra/,/gla/, and/gra/;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words, including words with que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(v) spelling contractions such as al and del;

(vi) spelling words with diphthongs such as/ai/,/au/, and/ie/ as in quie-ro, na-die, and ra-dio and hiatus such as le-er and rí-o; and

(vii) spelling words with common prefixes and suffixes;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and

(F) develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings;

(C) identify the meaning of words with affixes, including -s, -es, and -or; and

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, categories, and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character(s) and the reason(s) for their actions;

(C) describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and alliteration in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and simple graphics to locate or gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as by drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past and present verb tense, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions;

(vii) pronouns, including the use of personal and possessive pronouns, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú;

(viii) capitalization for the beginning of sentences;

(ix) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences and at the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and

(x) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules with adult assistance; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) dictate or compose informational texts, including procedural texts; and

(C) dictate or compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.4.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others; and

(E) develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding multisyllabic words;

(ii) decoding words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(iv) decoding words with diphthongs and hiatus;

(v) decoding common abbreviations; and

(vi) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words;

(ii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus;

(iii) spelling common abbreviations;

(iv) spelling words with prefixes and suffixes; and

(v) spelling words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(C) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and

(D) develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;

(C) use affixes, including re-, pre-, -ción, and ísimo/ísima, to determine the meaning of words and subsequently use the newly acquired words;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character's (characters') internal and external traits;

(C) describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the conflict, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the importance of the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;

(B) explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and graphics to locate and gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including:

(i) stating what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;

(E) identify the use of first or third person in a text; and

(F) identify and explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verb tense, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey place;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, and objective, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects and predicates;

(ix) capitalization of proper nouns and the salutation and closing of a letter;

(x) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences and the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports; and

(C) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) cite sources appropriately; and

(G) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.5.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules, norms, and protocols; and

(E) develop social communication such as conversing politely in all situations.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(ii) decoding words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(iv) becoming very familiar with the concept of hiatus and diphthongs and the implications for orthographic accents;

(v) decoding and differentiating meaning of a word based on a diacritical accent; and

(vi) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas and graves (words with an accent on the last and penultimate syllable);

(ii) spelling palabras esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable) that have an orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling words with the concept of diphthongs and hiatus and their implications for orthographic accents;

(iv) using accents on words commonly used in questions and exclamations;

(v) spelling words based on the diacritical accent such as se/sé, el/él, and mas/más;

(vi) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses;

(vii) spelling words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(viii) spelling words that have the same sounds represented by different letters, including ll and y; c, k, and q; soft c, soft x, s, and z; and soft g, j, and x;

(ix) spelling words with hard and soft r;

(x) spelling words using n before v; m before b; and m before p;

(xi) spelling words with sílabas trabadas; and

(xii) spelling the plural form of words ending in z by replacing the z with c before adding -es;

(C) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter; and

(D) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly in cursive leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes, including in-, des-, ex-, -mente, -dad, -oso, -eza, and -ura, and know how the affix changes the meaning of the word;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homophones, and homographs in a text; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to a literary or informational text that demonstrates an understanding of a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer the theme of a work, distinguishing theme from topic;

(B) explain the relationships among the major and minor characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the conflict, and the resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths;

(B) explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss the elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as cause and effect and problem and solution;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) explain the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of hyperbole.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) simple past, present, and future verb tense and imperfect past, perfect, and conditional verb tenses, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey manner;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, and reflexive pronouns;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of proper nouns, geographical names and places, historical periods, and official titles of people;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in a series and dates, and correct mechanics, including indentations; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry, using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) create a works cited page; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.6.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobreesdrújulas (words with the stress on the last, penultimate, and antepenultimate syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) using orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables, including diphthongs and formal and accented hiatus;

(iii) decoding and differentiating the meaning of a word based on the diacritical accent; and

(iv) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas and graves (words with the stress on the last and penultimate syllable) with an orthographic accent;

(ii) spelling palabras esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable) that have an orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(iv) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses; and

(C) write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use base words with affixes, including mono-, sobre-, sub-, inter-, poli-, -able, -ante, -eza, -ancia, and -ura, and roots, including auto, bio, grafía, metro, fono, and tele;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of idioms, homographs, and homophones such as abrasar/abrazar; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer basic themes supported by text evidence;

(B) explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as compare and contrast;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) irregular verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and adverbs that convey degree;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, and prepositional;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of historical events and documents, titles of books, stories, and essays;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in compound and complex sentences and em dash for dialogue; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.7.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret verbal and non-verbal messages, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) using orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables, including diphthongs and formal and accented hiatus;

(iii) decoding and differentiating meaning of word based on the diacritical accent; and

(iv) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules;

(ii) spelling palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and last syllable) with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling palabras sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate syllable) with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(iv) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(v) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, and word origin;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use base words with affixes, including trans-, super-, anti-, semi-, -logía, -ificar, -ismo, and -ista and roots, including audi, crono, foto, geo, and terr;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of idioms, adages, and puns; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within a text using text evidence;

(B) analyze the relationships of and conflicts among the characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) analyze the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain the use of sound devices and figurative language and distinguish between the poet and the speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as logical order and order of importance;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for or against an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) examine how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the purpose of hyperbole, stereotyping, and anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) irregular verbs;

(iii) collective nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including those indicating origin, and their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) conjunctive adverbs;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, prepositional, and indefinite;

(viii) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(ix) capitalization of initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in compound and complex sentences, em dash for dialogue, italics and underlining for titles and emphasis, and quotation marks for titles; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) understand credibility of primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on September 5, 2017.

TRD-201703520

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: September 25, 2017

Proposal publication date: March 3, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§128.20 - 128.23

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are adopted under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§128.21.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency level to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;

(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) differentiating between commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, asimismo (adverbio)/así mismo (de la misma manera), sino/si no, and también/tan bien;

(ii) decoding palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and ultimate/last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(iii) decoding words with hiatus and diphthongs; and

(iv) using knowledge of syllable division patterns and morphemes to decode multisyllabic words;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and ultimate/last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect conditional, and future tenses; and

(iii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing,and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words;

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Greek and Latin roots, including metro-, grafo-, scrib-, and port-; and

(D) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing,and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing,and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback; and

(D) analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;

(B) analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice; and

(G) explain the differences between rhetorical devices and logical fallacies.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, prepositional, indefinite, and relative;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions;

(vii) capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(viii) punctuation marks, including commas in complex sentences, transitions, and introductory elements; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.22.English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements.

(1) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 may be substituted for English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7. All expectations apply to English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ELLA Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others' ideas;

(B) follow, restate, and give increasingly complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others; and

(E) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words;

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek, Latin, and other languages, including omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent; un-, re-, -ly, and -er/or; and -ion/tion/sion, im- (into), non-, dis-, in- (not, non), pre-, -ness, -y, -er (comparative), -est, and -ful;

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E) use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) and adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how characters' qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense, to advance the plot; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;

(B) analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as references or acknowledgements, chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers; and

(iii) organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including subjective and objective point of view;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple, compound, and complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas to set off words, phrases, and clauses and semicolons; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.23.English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements.

(1) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 may be substituted for English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8. All expectations apply to English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ELLA Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message by summarizing, asking questions, and making comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific point of view;

(D) advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(E) participate collaboratively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues; and

(F) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words;

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek, Latin, and other languages, including ast, qui, path, mand/mend, and duc; auto, bio, graph, meter, phon, port, and tele; and terr, chrono, audi, geo, dict, photo, and ject;

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E) use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge the claims using relevant text evidence.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) analyze how themes are developed through the interaction of characters and events;

(B) analyze how characters' motivations and behaviors influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) explain how the setting influences the values and beliefs of characters.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, fantasy, science fiction, and short stories;

(B) identify structural elements such as rhyme, repetition, and alliteration and analyze how language contributes to the meaning of a poem;

(C) analyze the effect of graphical elements such as punctuation and line length in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry;

(D) analyze how playwrights develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as footnotes, endnotes, and citations; and

(iii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(F) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim and analyzing the argument;

(ii) identifying and explaining the counter argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(G) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as extended metaphor achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and analyze the use of literary devices, including multiple points of view and irony;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to the mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as analogy and juxtaposition and of logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and circular reasoning.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple, compound, and complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses and active and passive voice;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas in nonrestrictive phrases and clauses, semicolons, colons, and parentheses; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as bandwagon appeals, repetition, and loaded language;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on September 5, 2017.

TRD-201703522

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: September 25, 2017

Proposal publication date: March 3, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497