TITLE 19. EDUCATION

PART 2. TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY

CHAPTER 110. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING

SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §§110.35 - 110.39

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes new §§110.35-110.39, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for English language arts and reading. The proposed new sections would add new English language arts and reading TEKS for high school for implementation in the 2020-2021 school year.

Applications for appointment to English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees were accepted by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) from March 5, 2015, through April 6, 2015. The applications received were provided to SBOE members at the April 2015 meeting, and nominations for English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees and appointments of expert reviewers were made in spring 2015. Committee members were notified of the appointment in July 2015. The expert reviewers completed their review of the current TEKS and submitted initial reports to the SBOE in July 2015. Committee members participated in a training webinar in August 2015 in preparation for the first face-to-face meeting. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened in Austin in September 2015 to begin work on draft recommendations for the TEKS. The committees convened again in November 2015 to complete their initial draft recommendations.

In December 2015, the first draft recommendations were provided to the board and to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website for informal public feedback. In accordance with the board's review process, each of the expert reviewers and one member of each TEKS review committee presented invited testimony at the January 2016 meeting.

The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened for a third time in February 2016 in order to review feedback and work on the vertical alignment of the TEKS across grade levels and subjects. At the request of the board chair, representatives from each of the vertical alignment committees were asked to attend the April 2016 meeting to answer questions from board members. At that time, the board provided additional direction for the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committee members to address at their next meeting.

The committees met for a fourth time in April 2016 to address the board's direction and finalize their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committees' final recommendations were provided to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website in June 2016.

Representatives from the TEKS review committees convened in Austin in June 2016 to review the drafts and provide feedback regarding whether the recommended TEKS for each grade level or course can reasonably be taught within the amount of time typically allotted for the subject or course prior to the end of the school year or a state end-of-course assessment required by Texas Education Code, §39.023, as applicable.

At the July 2016 meeting, the committee heard invited testimony from board-appointed expert reviewers regarding their feedback on the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees' final recommendations. At that meeting, the board discussed next steps, reviewed timeline considerations for issuance of a proclamation for instructional materials for English and Spanish language arts and reading, and requested that staff make technical edits to the proposed revisions. The board also requested that the SBOE-appointed experts review the edited final recommendations and make suggestions to ensure the appropriate vertical alignment of the proposed TEKS. Additionally, the board requested feedback on the proposed revisions to the English language arts and reading TEKS from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. The expert reviewers met in August 2016 and again in November 2016 to work on their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The expert reviewers also met virtually with representatives from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board panel to discuss higher education recommendations. Drafts resulting from that work were provided at the November 2016 meeting. At that time, the SBOE requested that the expert reviewers finalize their recommendations. The expert reviewers conducted virtual meetings in November 2016 and December 2016 to complete their recommendations.

The proposed revisions to the Kindergarten-Grade 12 English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS were presented for first reading and filing authorization at the January/February 2017 meeting, and a public hearing on the proposed revisions was held at that time. At the meeting, the SBOE approved for first reading and filing authorization proposed revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS for Kindergarten-Grade 8. However, the board postponed action on proposed revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS for high school until the April 2017 meeting.

The SBOE approved the proposed new sections for first reading and filing authorization at its April 21, 2017 meeting.

The proposed new sections would have no new procedural and reporting implications.

The proposed new sections would have no new locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and support services, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed new sections are in effect there will be fiscal implications for the state. Implications for the TEA in fiscal years 2015, 2016, and 2017 include reimbursing committee members and expert reviewers for travel to review and revise the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. There are also implications for the TEA to create professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the revisions to the TEKS. For fiscal year 2015, the estimated cost to the TEA for reviewing and revising the TEKS was $4,700; for fiscal year 2016, the estimated cost was $275,000; and for fiscal year 2017, the estimated cost is $3,500. The TEA does not anticipate any implications for the state beyond fiscal year 2017.

There are anticipated fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools to implement the new TEKS, which may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed new sections are in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed new sections are in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the new sections will be better alignment of the TEKS and coordination of the standards with the adoption of instructional materials. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed new sections.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. The SBOE will hold a public hearing in conjunction with the regularly scheduled June 2017 SBOE meeting. Information about the public hearing will be available at http://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Leadership/State_Board_of_Education/SBOE_Meetings/State_Board_of_Education_Agenda/ by June 9, 2017. The SBOE has specifically requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the proposed student expectations. Specific feedback related to the time needed to teach individual concepts would be helpful.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025, which requires the SBOE by rule to determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025.

§110.35.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, High School, Adopted 2017.

(a) The provisions of §§110.36-110.39 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) No later than August 31, 2019, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading as adopted in §§110.36-110.39 of this subchapter.

(c) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§110.36-110.39 of this subchapter shall be implemented beginning with the 2020-2021 school year and apply to the 2020-2021 and subsequent school years.

(d) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§110.36-110.39 of this subchapter shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e) Sections 110.31-110.34 of this subchapter shall be superseded by the implementation of §§110.36-110.39 of this subchpater.

§110.36.English Language Arts and Reading, English I (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, respond appropriately, and adjust communication to audiences and purposes;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(C) give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words; and

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as caveat emptor, carte blanche, tête-à-tête, pas de deux, bon appétit, and quid pro quo.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(4) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(5) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(6) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how different authors present similar themes across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences the theme.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of American, British, and world literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze the structure, prosody, and graphic elements such as line length and word position in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion; and

(ii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) counter arguments, types of evidence, concessions, and call to action; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(8) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) analyze how the author's use of language achieves specific purposes;

(E) analyze the use of literary devices such as point of view, irony, and oxymoron to achieve specific purposes;

(F) analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as understatement and overstatement and the effect of logical fallacies such as straw man and red herring arguments.

(9) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including a strategic introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence fluency, including parallel structure;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(iv) correct capitalization;

(v) punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, and dashes to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(vi) correct spelling; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as personal or informative essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(11) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) develop student-selected questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) examine sources for:

(i) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as ad hominem, loaded language, and slippery slope;

(G) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(H) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(I) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.37.English Language Arts and Reading, English II (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, respond appropriately, and adjust communication to audiences and purposes;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(C) advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to distinguish between denotative and figurative meanings of words; and

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as status quo, déjà vu, avant-garde, and coup d'état.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(4) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(5) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(6) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast differences in similar themes expressed across a variety of works;

(B) analyze how authors use events of historical and cultural periods to shape characters;

(C) analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole; and

(D) compare and contrast historical and cultural settings across texts.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of American, British, and world literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze the effects of metrics; rhyme schemes such as end, internal, slant, and eye; and other conventions in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion; and

(ii) the relationship between organizational design and thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) counter arguments, types of evidence, concessions, and call to action; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(8) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) analyze how the author's use of language informs and shapes the perception of readers;

(E) analyze the use of literary devices such as point of view, irony, sarcasm, and motif to achieve specific purposes;

(F) analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G) analyze the purpose of rhetorical devices such as appeals, antithesis, parallelism, and shifts.

(9) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including a strategic introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence fluency, including parallel structure;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(iv) correct capitalization;

(v) punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, brackets, and ellipses to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(vi) correct spelling; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as personal or informative essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(11) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) develop student-selected questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) examine sources for:

(i) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as incorrect premise, hasty generalizations, and either-or;

(G) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(H) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(I) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.38.English Language Arts and Reading, English III (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the clarity and coherence of a speaker's message and critique the impact of a speaker's diction and syntax on an audience;

(B) follow and give complex instructions, clarify meaning by asking pertinent questions, and respond appropriately;

(C) give a formal presentation that exhibits a logical structure, smooth transitions, accurate evidence, well-chosen details, and rhetorical devices and that employs eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team toward goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to clarify and validate understanding of multiple meanings of advanced vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to draw conclusions about nuanced meanings such as in imagery; and

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as ad hoc, faux pas, non sequitur, and modus operandi.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(4) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(5) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(6) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze themes representing different cultures across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze differences in characters' moral dilemmas in works of fiction across different countries or cultures;

(C) evaluate how different literary elements shape the author's portrayal of the plot; and

(D) describe how setting reflects historical, social, and economic context.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of American, British, and world literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze relationships among open/closed poetic forms, stanzas, line breaks, speaker, and sound devices in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze the function of archetypes and motifs;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, commentary, summary, and conclusion; and

(ii) the relationship between organizational design and author's purpose;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable thesis, appeals, structure of the argument, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) counter arguments, concessions, and call to action; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(8) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) evaluate use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) evaluate how the author's use of language informs and shapes the perception of readers;

(E) evaluate the use of literary devices such as paradox, satire, and allegory to achieve specific purposes;

(F) evaluate how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G) analyze the effect of rhetorical devices on the way the text is read and understood.

(9) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including a strategic introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with reasons, details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence fluency, including parallel structure;

(D) edit drafts to demonstrate a command of standard English conventions using a style guide as appropriate; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as resumes and personal and informative essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure; and

(E) compose rhetorical analysis using genre characteristics and craft.

(11) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) develop student-selected questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) examine sources for:

(i) credibility, bias, and accuracy; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as post hoc-ad hoc, circular reasoning, red herring, and assumptions;

(G) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(H) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(I) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.39.English Language Arts and Reading, English IV (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) assess the persuasiveness of a presentation based on content, diction, rhetorical strategies, and delivery;

(B) follow and give complex instructions, clarify meaning by asking pertinent questions, and respond appropriately;

(C) formulate sound arguments by using elements of classical speeches such as introduction, first and second transitions, body, conclusion, the art of persuasion, rhetorical devices, eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team toward goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to clarify and validate understanding of multiple meanings of advanced vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to draw conclusions about nuanced meanings such as in imagery; and

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as ad nauseum, in loco parentis, laissez-faire, and bona fide.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(4) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(5) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(6) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze relationships among thematic development, characterization, point of view, significance of setting, and ploy in a variety of literary texts;

(B) analyze the moral dilemmas and quandaries as revealed by the underlying motivations and behaviors of the characters;

(C) critique and evaluate how complex plot structures such as subplots and devices function and advance the action; and

(D) evaluate the impact of setting(s) and how setting reflects historical, social, and economic aspects of a story.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of American, British, and world literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze the changes in sound, form, figurative language, graphics, and dramatic structure in poetry across literary time periods and cultures;

(C) analyze and evaluate how the relationships among the dramatic elements advance the plot;

(D) critique and evaluate characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, commentary, summary, and conclusion; and

(ii) the relationship between organizational design and author's purpose;

(E) critique and evaluate characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable thesis, appeals, structure of the argument, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) counter arguments, concessions, and call to action; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) critique and evaluate characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(8) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) evaluate use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) critique and evaluate how the author's use of language informs and shapes the perception of readers;

(E) evaluate the use of literary devices such as paradox, satire, and allegory to achieve specific purposes;

(F) evaluate how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G) analyze the effect of rhetorical devices on the way the text is read and understood.

(9) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including a strategic introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with reasons, details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence fluency, including parallel structure;

(D) edit drafts to demonstrate a command of standard English conventions using a style guide as appropriate; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as resumes and personal and informative essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure; and

(E) compose literary analysis using genre characteristics and craft.

(11) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) develop student-selected questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) examine sources for:

(i) credibility, bias, and accuracy; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as straw man, false dilemma, faulty analogies, and non-sequitur;

(G) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(H) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(I) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on May 8, 2017.

TRD-201701839

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 18, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 114. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR LANGUAGES OTHER THAN ENGLISH

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes the repeal of §§114.1, 114.2, 114.11, 114.12, and 114.21 - 114.29, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for languages other than English (LOTE). The proposed repeals would remove the TEKS adopted to be effective in 1998 for elementary, middle, and high school LOTE, and related implementation language, that will be superseded by new 19 TAC §§114.3, 114.4, 114.13, 114.14, and 114.31 - 114.52 beginning with the 2017-2018 school year.

The SBOE adopted proposed revisions to the LOTE TEKS in 2014 for implementation in the 2017-2018 school year. With the implementation of the new LOTE TEKS in 19 TAC §§114.3, 114.4, 114.13, 114.14, and 114.31 - 114.52, scheduled for August 28, 2017, the current TEKS in 19 TAC §§114.1, 114.2, 114.11, 114.12, and 114.21 - 114.29 are no longer needed and may now be repealed.

The SBOE approved the proposed repeals for first reading and filing authorization at its April 21, 2017 meeting.

The proposed repeals would have no new procedural and reporting implications.

The proposed repeals would have no new locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and support services, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed repeals are in effect there will be no additional costs to state and local government as a result of enforcing or administering the proposed repeals.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed repeals are in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed repeals are in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the repeals will be better alignment of the TEKS and coordination of the standards with the adoption of instructional materials. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed repeals.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. A request for a public hearing on the proposed repeals submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §114.1, §114.2

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025, which requires the SBOE by rule to determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025.

§114.1.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Languages Other Than English, Elementary.

§114.2.Languages Other Than English, Elementary.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on May 8, 2017.

TRD-201701843

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 18, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §114.11, §114.12

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025, which requires the SBOE by rule to determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025.

§114.11.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Languages Other Than English, Middle School.

§114.12.Languages Other Than English, Middle School.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on May 8, 2017.

TRD-201701845

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 18, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §§114.21 - 114.29

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025, which requires the SBOE by rule to determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025.

§114.21.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Languages Other Than English, High School.

§114.22.Levels I and II - Novice Progress Checkpoint (One Credit Per Level).

§114.23.Levels III and IV - Intermediate Progress Checkpoint (One Credit Per Level).

§114.24.Levels V, VI and VII - Advanced Progress Checkpoint (One Credit Per Level).

§114.25.Exploratory Languages (One-Half to One Credit).

§114.26.Cultural and Linguistic Topics (One-Half to One Credit).

§114.27.American Sign Language Levels I and II - Novice Progress Checkpoint (One Credit Per Level).

§114.28.American Sign Language Levels III and IV - Intermediate Progress Checkpoint (One Credit Per Level).

§114.29.American Sign Language Levels V, VI and VII - Advanced Progress Checkpoint (One Credit Per Level).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on May 8, 2017.

TRD-201701846

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 18, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 128. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SPANISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING AND ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §§128.33 - 128.36

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes new §§128.33 - 128.36, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for English as a second language. The proposed new sections would add new English as a second language TEKS for high school for implementation in the 2020-2021 school year.

Applications for appointment to English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees were accepted by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) from March 5, 2015, through April 6, 2015. The applications received were provided to SBOE members at the April 2015 meeting, and nominations for English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees and appointments of expert reviewers were made in spring 2015. Committee members were notified of the appointment in July 2015. The expert reviewers completed their review of the current TEKS and submitted initial reports to the SBOE in July 2015. Committee members participated in a training webinar in August 2015 in preparation for the first face-to-face meeting. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened in Austin in September 2015 to begin work on draft recommendations for the TEKS. The committees convened again in November 2015 to complete their initial draft recommendations.

In December 2015, the first draft recommendations were provided to the board and to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website for informal public feedback. In accordance with the board's review process, each of the expert reviewers and one member of each TEKS review committee presented invited testimony at the January 2016 meeting.

The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened for a third time in February 2016 in order to review feedback and work on the vertical alignment of the TEKS across grade levels and subjects. At the request of the board chair, representatives from each of the vertical alignment committees were asked to attend the April 2016 meeting to answer questions from board members. At that time, the board provided additional direction for the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committee members to address at their next meeting.

The committees met for a fourth time in April 2016 to address the board's direction and finalize their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committees' final recommendations were provided to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website in June 2016.

Representatives from the TEKS review committees convened in Austin in June 2016 to review the drafts and provide feedback regarding whether the recommended TEKS for each grade level or course can reasonably be taught within the amount of time typically allotted for the subject or course prior to the end of the school year or a state end-of-course assessment required by Texas Education Code, §39.023, as applicable.

At the July 2016 meeting, the committee heard invited testimony from board-appointed expert reviewers regarding their feedback on the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees' final recommendations. At that meeting, the board discussed next steps, reviewed timeline considerations for issuance of a proclamation for instructional materials for English and Spanish language arts and reading, and requested that staff make technical edits to the proposed revisions. The board also requested that the SBOE-appointed experts review the edited final recommendations and make suggestions to ensure the appropriate vertical alignment of the proposed TEKS. Additionally, the board requested feedback on the proposed revisions to the English language arts and reading TEKS from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. The expert reviewers met in August 2016 and again in November 2016 to work on their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The expert reviewers also met virtually with representatives from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board panel to discuss higher education recommendations. Drafts resulting from that work were provided at the November 2016 meeting. At that time, the SBOE requested that the expert reviewers finalize their recommendations. The expert reviewers conducted virtual meetings in November 2016 and December 2016 to complete their recommendations.

The proposed revisions to the Kindergarten-Grade 12 English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS were presented for first reading and filing authorization at the January/February 2017 meeting, and a public hearing on the proposed revisions was held at that time. At the meeting, the SBOE approved for first reading and filing authorization proposed revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS for Kindergarten-Grade 8. However, the board postponed action on proposed revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS for high school until the April 2017 meeting.

The SBOE approved the proposed new sections for first reading and filing authorization at its April 21, 2017 meeting.

The proposed new sections would have no new procedural and reporting implications.

The proposed new sections would have no new locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and support services, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed new sections are in effect there will be fiscal implications for the state. Implications for the TEA in fiscal years 2015, 2016, and 2017 include reimbursing committee members and expert reviewers for travel to review and revise the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. There are also implications for the TEA to create professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the revisions to the TEKS. For fiscal year 2015, the estimated cost to the TEA for reviewing and revising the TEKS was $4,700; for fiscal year 2016, the estimated cost was $275,000; and for fiscal year 2017, the estimated cost is $3,500. The TEA does not anticipate any implications for the state beyond fiscal year 2017.

There are anticipated fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools to implement the new TEKS, which may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed new sections are in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed new sections are in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the new sections will be better alignment of the TEKS and coordination of the standards with the adoption of instructional materials. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed new sections.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. The SBOE will hold a public hearing in conjunction with the regularly scheduled June 2017 SBOE meeting. Information about the public hearing will be available at http://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Leadership/State_Board_of_Education/SBOE_Meetings/State_Board_of_Education_Agenda/ by June 9, 2017. The SBOE has specifically requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the proposed student expectations. Specific feedback related to the time needed to teach individual concepts would be helpful.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025, which requires the SBOE by rule to determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025.

§128.33.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English as a Second Language, High School, Adopted 2017.

(a) The provisions of §§128.34-128.36 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) No later than August 31, 2019, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for English as a Second Language as adopted in §§128.34-128.36 of this subchapter.

(c) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§128.34-128.36 of this subchapter shall be implemented beginning with the 2020-2021 school year and apply to the 2020-2021 and subsequent school years.

(d) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§128.34-128.36 of this subchapter shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e) Section 128.31 and §128.32 of this subchapter shall be superseded by the implementation of §§128.34-128.36 of this section.

§128.34.English I for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended corequisite: English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA).

(1) The essential knowledge and skills for English I for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL I) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) ESOL I may be substituted for English I as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL I students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ESOL Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, respond appropriately, and adjust communication to audiences and purposes;

(B) share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication;

(C) follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(D) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways;

(E) conduct an interview, including social, informative, and literary;

(F) give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(G) listen and respond to critique from peers after an oral presentation; and

(H) participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(D) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as caveat emptor, carte blanche, tête-à-tête, pas de deux, bon appétit, and quid pro quo;

(E) use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented;

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence; and

(K) express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) analyze how different authors present similar themes across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences the theme.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of American, British, and world literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze the structure and prosody and graphic elements such as line length, and word position in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) controlling idea and clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion;

(ii) chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers; and

(iii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) counter arguments, types of evidence, concessions, and call to action; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) analyze author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) analyze how the author's use of language achieves specific purposes;

(E) analyze the use of literary devices such as point of view, irony, and oxymoron to achieve specific purposes;

(F) analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text;

(G) identify and analyze the use of rhetorical devices, including allusion, repetition, appeals, and rhetorical questions; and

(H) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as understatement and overstatement and the effect of logical fallacies such as straw man and red herring arguments.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including a strategic introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence fluency, including parallel structure;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii) subject-verb agreement;

(iv) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(v) apostrophes to show possession;

(vi) accurate usage of homonyms;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, and dashes to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(ix) correct spelling, including abbreviations;

(E) use sentence-combining techniques to create a variety of sentence structures and lengths;

(F) develop voice; and

(G) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as personal or informative essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) develop student-selected questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) examine sources for:

(i) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as ad hominem, loaded language, and slippery slope;

(G) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(H) display academic citations and use source materials ethically;

(I) incorporate digital technology when appropriate; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§128.35.English II for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended corequisite: English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA).

(1) The essential knowledge and skills for English II for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL II) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) ESOL II may be substituted for English II as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL II students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ESOL Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, respond appropriately, and adjust communication to audiences and purposes;

(B) share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication;

(C) follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(D) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways;

(E) conduct an interview, including social, informative, and literary;

(F) advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(G) listen and respond to critique from peers after an oral presentation; and

(H) participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to distinguish between denotative and figurative meanings of words;

(C) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(D) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as status quo, déjà vu, avant-garde, and coup d'état;

(E) use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented;

(J) defend or challenge authors' claims using relevant text evidence; and

(K) express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating in complete sentences to extended discussions.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast differences in similar themes expressed across a variety of works;

(B) analyze how authors use events of historical and cultural periods to shape characters;

(C) analyze isolated scenes; and

(D) compare and contrast historical and cultural settings across texts.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of American, British, and world literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze the effects of metrics; rhyme schemes such as end, internal, slant, and eye; and other conventions in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion;

(ii) chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers to locate, explain, or use information and gain understanding of text;

(iii) organizational patterns such as description, temporal sequence, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and problem and solution; and

(iv) the relationship between organizational design and thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) controlling idea and clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) counter arguments, types of evidence, concessions, and call to action; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) analyze author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) analyze how the author's use of language informs and shapes the perception of readers;

(E) analyze the use of literary devices such as point of view, irony, sarcasm, and motif to achieve specific purposes;

(F) analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G) analyze the purpose of rhetorical devices such as appeals, antithesis, parallelism, and shifts.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including a strategic introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence fluency, including parallel structure;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii) subject-verb agreement;

(iv) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(v) apostrophes to show possession;

(vi) accurate usage of homonyms;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, brackets, and ellipses to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(ix) correct spelling, including abbreviations;

(E) use sentence-combining techniques to create a variety of sentence structures and lengths;

(F) develop voice; and

(G) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as personal or informative essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) develop student-selected questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) examine sources for:

(i) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as incorrect premise, hasty generalizations, and either-or;

(G) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(H) display academic citations and use source materials ethically;

(I) incorporate digital technology when appropriate; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§128.36.English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA) (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements.

(1) Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. This course must be taken concurrently with a corequisite language arts course as outlined in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) or this chapter. Recommended corequisites: English I for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL I) and English II for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL II).

(2) Students may take this course with a different corequisite for a maximum of two credits.

(b) Introduction.

(1) English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA) is designed to provide instructional opportunities for secondary recent immigrant students with little or no English proficiency. These students have scored at the negligible/very limited academic language level of the state-approved English oral language proficiency tests. This course enables students to become increasingly more proficient in English in all four language domains. It addresses cognitive, linguistic, and affective needs in compliance with federal requirements and the provisions of Chapter 89, Subchapter BB, of this title (relating to Commissioner's Rules Concerning State Plan for Educating English Language Learners) under the Texas Education Code, §§29.051-29.064.

(2) The English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA) course will validate a student's native language and culture as a valuable resource and as a foundation to attain the English language. It will develop social language, survival vocabulary, and the basic building blocks of literacy for newly arrived and preliterate students.

(3) Through comprehensible input, students have access to curriculum that accelerates second language acquisition. Students are challenged to apply higher-order thinking skills in all four language domains.

(4) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that English language learners acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(5) The development of communicative competence occurs through targeted lessons based on students' needs, although academic language proficiency is the focus of instruction.

(6) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. Students develop oral language and word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and encode. Students apply knowledge and relationships found in the structures, origins, and contextual meanings of words. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) distinguish and produce sounds and intonation patterns of English;

(B) recognize print directionality of the English language such as reading left to right or top to bottom;

(C) develop knowledge of relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

(D) process and use basic academic English language interdisciplinary vocabulary;

(E) understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from familiar to unfamiliar topics;

(F) identify people, places, objects, events, and basic concepts such as numbers, days of the week, food, occupations, clothing, colors, and time;

(G) learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words;

(H) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(I) develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning from environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely;

(J) use print or digital resources such as glossaries, English dictionaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and available technology to determine meanings and usage;

(K) listen actively and ask relevant questions to clarify understanding; and

(L) share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication and foster respect for others.

(2) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students use metacognitive skills both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) summarize texts and retell in English or the native language (L1) as needed;

(B) self-monitor using pre-reading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary to enhance comprehension of input from various sources;

(C) demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, responding to questions, and taking notes that are commensurate with language acquisition;

(D) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and the larger community;

(E) listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as video, DVD, CD, or other technology to build and reinforce concepts and language; and

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding.

(3) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students react and respond to a variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) formulate and provide effective verbal and non-verbal feedback;

(B) speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired;

(C) ask for and give information such as directions, address, name, age, and nationality;

(D) express ideas and feelings such as gratitude, needs, opinion, and greetings;

(E) communicate non-verbally to effectively and appropriately engage in formal and social interactions;

(F) express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions;

(G) respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to reinforce concept and language attainment; and

(H) organize information in a variety of ways such as graphics, conceptual maps, and learning logs.

(4) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students recognize and analyze genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse multicultural texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compare characteristics of cultures represented in various linguistic and non-linguistic sources;

(B) read and listen to adapted or linguistically accommodated modified classical, traditional, contemporary, and multicultural works in English or native language (L1) in alignment with grade-level student expectations;

(C) use text features, including titles, headings, subheadings, paragraphs, fonts, styles, index, glossary, table of contents, and graphics to locate, explain, or use information; and

(D) compare and contrast how events are presented and information is communicated by visual images such as graphic art, illustrations, or photographs versus non-visual text.

(5) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students use critical inquiry to analyze the purpose of authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a text. Students will analyze and apply author's craft purposefully in order to develop their own products and performances. Based on the student's proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) determine and interpret an author's or speaker's intended message;

(B) determine the target audience; and

(C) determine the purpose of the message.

(6) Composition: listening, speaking, reading writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students use the modes of writing/discourse and the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are meaningful and legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) produce legible work that demonstrates accurate use of the English alphabet, accurate spelling, and correct use of the conventions of punctuation and capitalization;

(B) spell familiar words with increasing accuracy and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

(C) demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and verb forms;

(D) use prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan;

(E) write effectively in first person;

(F) apply oral and written conventions in English with increasing fluency during classroom presentations, compositions, and dialogue;

(G) arrange phrases, clauses, and sentences into correct and meaningful patterns;

(H) compile written ideas to form paragraphs;

(I) organize and convert information into different forms such as charts, graphs, and drawings;

(J) convey intended meaning while recognizing the meanings and uses of the other registers in English that are often expressed through colloquialisms, idioms, and other language forms;

(K) create, revise, edit, and publish using various technology applications;

(L) use writing as a study tool to clarify and remember information;

(M) evaluate writing for both mechanics and content; and

(N) use cohesive devices appropriately.

(7) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students engage in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) locate appropriate print and non-print information using texts and technical resources, periodicals, and the internet;

(B) compile information using available technology;

(C) discover, organize, and support in writing what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic; and

(D) compare and contrast coverage of the same event in various media such as newspapers, television, documentaries, blogs, and the internet.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on May 8, 2017.

TRD-201701840

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 18, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497