TITLE 19. EDUCATION

PART 2. TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY

CHAPTER 30. ADMINISTRATION

SUBCHAPTER A. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION: GENERAL PROVISIONS

19 TAC §30.1

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes an amendment to §30.1, concerning petition for adoption of rule changes. The proposed amendment would update the petition form adopted in rule to require the petitioner to indicate that the petitioner meets one of the four definitions of an interested person specified in statute and add language to specify the reasons the SBOE may deny a petition for rulemaking.

Texas Government Code, §2001.021, requires that procedures to petition for the adoption of rule changes be adopted by rule. To comply with statute, the SBOE adopted 19 TAC §30.1 effective December 5, 2004. Effective April 26, 2009, the section was amended to adopt in rule as a figure the form used to petition for the adoption of rule changes to ensure compliance with statute and increase public awareness.

House Bill 763, 84th Texas Legislature, 2015, amended the Texas Government Code, §2001.021, to define the term interested person for the purposes of petitioning a rule change. The statute states that an interested person must be one of the following: a resident of Texas, a business entity located in Texas, a governmental subdivision located in Texas, or a public or private organization located in Texas that is not a state agency. The proposed amendment to 19 TAC §30.1 would update Figure: 19 TAC §30.1(a) to require the petitioner to indicate that the petitioner meets one of the four definitions of an interested person specified in statute.

In addition, in order to facilitate public awareness of the petition process, the proposed amendment would add a new subsection (d) that would specify the reasons the SBOE may deny a petition for rulemaking. The reasons would include lack of jurisdiction or authority; conflict with statute, court decisions, or another SBOE rule; determination that another process would be more appropriate than rulemaking; inappropriate use of the petition process if filing a petition within one year of having the petition denied or to amend a rule proposed or adopted by the SBOE that has not yet become effective; or any other reason the SBOE determines is grounds for denial.

The SBOE approved the proposed amendment for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017 meeting.

The proposed amendment would require a petitioner to indicate which of the four definitions of interested person the petitioner meets.

The proposed amendment would have no locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Megan Aghazadian, deputy commissioner for operations, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed amendment is in effect there will be no additional costs to state and local government as a result of enforcing or administering the proposed amendment.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed amendment is in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Aghazadian has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed amendment is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the amendment will be alignment of the rule with statute by including the four definitions of interested person in the petition form and public notice of the reasons the SBOE may deny a petition for rulemaking. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed amendment.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. A request for a public hearing on the proposed amendment submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendment is proposed under the Texas Government Code, §2001.021, which authorizes a state agency to prescribe by rule the form for a petition and the procedure for the submission, consideration, and disposition.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendment implements the Texas Government Code, §2001.021.

§30.1.Petition for Adoption of Rule Changes.

(a) Any interested person as defined in Texas Government Code, §2001.021(d), may petition for the adoption, amendment, or repeal of a rule of the State Board of Education (SBOE) by filing a petition on a form provided in this subsection. The petition shall be signed and submitted to the commissioner of education. In consultation with the persons in the Texas Education Agency who are responsible for the area with which the rule is concerned, the commissioner shall evaluate the merits of the proposal to determine whether to recommend that rulemaking proceedings be initiated or that the petition be denied.

Figure: 19 TAC §30.1(a) (.pdf)

[Figure: 19 TAC §30.1(a)]

(b) In accordance with the Texas Government Code, §2001.021, the agency must respond to the petitioner within 60 days of receipt of the petition.

(1) Where possible, the commissioner's recommendation concerning the petition shall be placed on the SBOE agenda, and the SBOE shall act on the petition within the 60-day time limit.

(2) Where the time required to review the petition or the scheduling of SBOE meetings will not permit the SBOE to act on the petition within the required 60 days, the commissioner or a designee shall respond to the petitioner within the required 60 days, notifying the petitioner of the date of the SBOE meeting at which the recommendation will be presented to the SBOE for action.

(c) The SBOE will review the petition and the recommendation of the commissioner and will either direct the commissioner to begin the rulemaking process or deny the petition, giving reasons for the denial. The commissioner or designee will notify the petitioner of the SBOE's action related to the petition.

(d) The SBOE may deny a petition on the following grounds:

(1) the SBOE does not have jurisdiction or authority to propose or adopt the petitioned rule;

(2) the petitioned rule conflicts with a statute, court decision, another rule proposed or adopted by the SBOE, or other law;

(3) the SBOE determines that a different proceeding, procedure, or act more appropriately addresses the subject matter of the petition than initiating a rulemaking proceeding;

(4) the petitioner is inappropriately using the opportunity to file a rulemaking petition under this section, as evidenced by filing a petition:

(A) within one year of having the petition denied; or

(B) to amend a rule proposed or adopted by the SBOE that has not yet become effective; or

(5) any other reason the SBOE determines is grounds for denial.

(e) [(d)] If the SBOE initiates rulemaking procedures in response to a petition, the rule text which the SBOE proposes may differ from the rule text proposed by the petitioner.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700675

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER AA. COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION: GENERAL PROVISIONS

19 TAC §30.1001

The Texas Education Agency proposes an amendment to §30.1001, concerning petition for adoption of rule changes. The proposed amendment would update the petition form adopted in rule to require the petitioner to indicate that the petitioner meets one of the four definitions of an interested person specified in statute and would add language to specify the reasons the commissioner of education may deny a petition for rulemaking.

Texas Government Code, §2001.021, requires that procedures to petition for the adoption of rule changes be adopted by rule. To comply with statute, the commissioner adopted 19 TAC §30.1001 effective September 23, 2004. Effective May 12, 2009, the section was amended to adopt in rule as a figure the form used to petition for the adoption of rule changes to ensure compliance with statute and increase public awareness.

House Bill 763, 84th Texas Legislature, 2015, amended the Texas Government Code, §2001.021, to define the term interested person for the purposes of petitioning a rule change. The statute states that an interested person must be one of the following: a resident of Texas, a business entity located in Texas, a governmental subdivision located in Texas, or a public or private organization located in Texas that is not a state agency. The proposed amendment to 19 TAC §30.1001 would update Figure: 19 TAC §30.1001(a) to require the petitioner to indicate that the petitioner meets one of the four definitions of an interested person specified in statute.

In addition, in order to facilitate public awareness of the petition process, the proposed amendment would add a new subsection (d) that would specify the reasons the commissioner may deny a petition for rulemaking. The reasons would include lack of jurisdiction or authority; conflict with statute, court decisions, or another commissioner rule; determination that another process would be more appropriate than rulemaking; inappropriate use of the petition process if filing a petition within one year of having the petition denied or to amend a rule proposed or adopted by the commissioner that has not yet become effective; or any other reason the commissioner determines is grounds for denial.

The proposed amendment would require a petitioner to indicate which of the four definitions of interested person the petitioner meets.

The proposed amendment would have no locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Megan Aghazadian, associate commissioner for operations, has determined that for the first five-year period the amendment is in effect, there will be no fiscal implications for state or local government as a result of enforcing or administering the amendment. There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed amendment is in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Aghazadian has determined that for each year of the first five years the amendment is in effect the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the amendment will be alignment of the rule with statute by including the four definitions of interested person in the petition form and providing public notice of the reasons the commissioner may deny a petition for rulemaking. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed amendment.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. The public comment period on the proposal begins March 3, 2017, and ends April 3, 2017. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on March 3, 2017.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendment is proposed under the Texas Government Code, §2001.021, which authorizes a state agency to prescribe by rule the form for a petition and the procedure for the submission, consideration, and disposition.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendment implements the Texas Government Code, §2001.021.

§30.1001.Petition for Adoption of Rule Changes.

(a) Any [In accordance with Texas Government Code, §2001.021, any] interested person as defined in Texas Government Code, §2001.021(d), may petition for the adoption, amendment, or repeal of a rule of the commissioner of education by filing a petition on a form provided in this subsection. The petition shall be signed and submitted to the commissioner of education.

Figure: 19 TAC §30.1001(a) (.pdf)

[Figure: 19 TAC §30.1001(a)]

(b) The commissioner or the commissioner's designee shall evaluate the merits of the proposal.

(c) In accordance with the Texas Government Code, §2001.021, the commissioner or the commissioner's designee shall respond to the petitioner within 60 days of receipt of the petition. The response shall:

(1) advise that rulemaking proceedings will be initiated; or

(2) deny the petition, stating the reasons for its denial.

(d) The commissioner may deny a petition on the following grounds:

(1) the commissioner does not have jurisdiction or authority to propose or adopt the petitioned rule;

(2) the petitioned rule conflicts with a statute, court decision, another rule proposed or adopted by the commissioner, or other law;

(3) the commissioner determines that a different proceeding, procedure, or act more appropriately addresses the subject matter of the petition than initiating a rulemaking proceeding;

(4) the petitioner is inappropriately using the opportunity to file a rulemaking petition under this section, as evidenced by filing a petition:

(A) within one year of having the petition denied; or

(B) to amend a rule proposed or adopted by the commissioner that has not yet become effective; or

(5) any other reason the commissioner determines is grounds for denial.

(e) [(d)] If the commissioner initiates rulemaking procedures in response to a petition, the rule text which the commissioner proposes may differ from the rule text proposed by the petitioner.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700674

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 109. BUDGETING, ACCOUNTING, AND AUDITING

SUBCHAPTER D. UNIFORM BANK BID OR REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL AND DEPOSITORY CONTRACT

19 TAC §109.51

(Editor's note: In accordance with Texas Government Code, §2002.014, which permits the omission of material which is "cumbersome, expensive, or otherwise inexpedient," the figures in 19 TAC §109.51(c) and (d) are not included in the print version of the Texas Register. The figure is available in the on-line version of the March 3, 2017, issue of the Texas Register.)

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes an amendment to §109.51, concerning uniform depository bank bid or proposal form. The proposed amendment would facilitate the acquisition of a depository contract that is in compliance with current banking standards.

The rules in 19 TAC Chapter 109, Subchapter D, establish requirements related to a school district's selection of and contract with a bank to serve as the district's depository for all funds.

Specifically, §109.51 establishes the requirement that each school district, before the current depository contract expires, choose whether to select a depository bank through competitive bidding or through requests for proposals and then submit a blank uniform bid or proposal form to each bank in the district and, if desired, to other interested banks. Section 109.51 also establishes the requirement that a district file the selected form with the Texas Education Agency. The section includes the bid and proposal forms prescribed by the SBOE.

The proposed amendment to §109.51 would update the rule to comply with current banking standards by facilitating the acquisition of a depository contract that a school district must use with a depository bank.

Both the uniform bid blank form, adopted as Figure: 19 TAC §109.51(c), and the uniform proposal blank form, adopted as Figure: 19 TAC §109.51(d), would be revised as follows.

The Definitions and Instructions section would be revised to include the right to use a sub-depository bank other than the primary bank and specify that those deposits will be collateralized.

The Bank Compensation section would specify that the district may pay for the bank's services by targeted balances or by fees and change the methodology when appropriate. The bank would be required to detail any differences in related costs for either option.

The Compensation Based on a Targeted Balance section would specify that a money market mutual fund used for excess collected balance daily investments must be one that strives to maintain a $1 NAV (Net Asset Value).

The District Investments section would be modified to update the single maturity time deposits amount from more than $100,000 to more than $250,000.

The Collateral section would be amended to remove language that requires the bank to specify whether it will use corporate surety bonds or pledged securities as collateral for the district's funds. Removing the language would avoid duplication and contradiction with the section on Eligible Collateral.

The Collateral Conditions section would be amended to remove language stating that the district may specify any limitations on its preferred custodial arrangement.

The Eligible Collateral section would be revised to add language allowing the use of voluntary pooled collateral (if available) or a Federal Home Loan Bank Letter of Credit.

The Banking Services Fees section would be modified to include language stating that all fees that may be charged to supply the services must be included or will not be eligible under the contract and that both the district and the bank reserve the right to mutually agree upon any change of contract terms or pricing during the contract extension periods.

The Depository Information section would be amended to remove reference to the Uniform Bank Performance Report and add a requirement that audited financial statements will be required for each year of the contract.

The Consolidated Account Structure with Sweep Mechanism section would be updated to add an option for the district to specify that it will not accept offshore investments as sweep investment vehicles; clarify that the district does not guarantee that it will maintain the account structure at the same level; and state that a money market fund used for the sweep proposal must strive to maintain a $1 NAV.

The Automated Cash Management Information section would include language that the district is interested in online retention of cash management information. The amendment would also make optional the language relating to controlled disbursement presentment totals and the questions about controlled disbursements.

The Remote Deposit section would be modified to clarify that the district is interested in using remote check deposit for certain locations.

The Standard Disbursing Services section would update language to ask if the bank images all paid checks, deposit items, and deposit slips.

The Positive Pay section would be modified to state that the district requires positive pay services if available at the bank for designated accounts on which checks are written. In addition, "payroll" would change to "payee" in subsection (g).

The Account Reconciliation section would include a new subsection requesting that the bank provide references of customers who use the XX ledger system.

The Funds Transfer and Wire Services section would be revised in subsection (f) to ask if templates and template storage are available for repetitive transfers.

The Optical Imaging section would include new language in subsection (a) to ask how long certain items and reports are available online.

The Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Services section would be amended to state that the district requires ACH transactions for payable and receivable transactions. The section would also include new subsections (f) and (g) that ask if ACH positive pay is available and if ACH debits the account on day of initiation or settlement.

The title of section 10 would change to Safekeeping Services. Language in the section would be amended to specify that the district may require the bank or another eligible offeror to provide book-entry safekeeping services for any securities the district owns and that the district will make all its investments and transmit instructions for clearing and safekeeping to the bank in writing or electronically. Language relating to the Federal Reserve or a Federal Home Loan Bank would be updated.

The Collateral Requirements section would be revised to state that the bank must meet all the requirements, including those beyond the Public Funds Collateral Act, as stated in the section. An update would also be made to specify that authorized collateral includes only approved securities as specified by the Texas Government Code, Chapter 2257, Public Funds Collateral Act, and noted previously in the section.

The Account Analysis section would be amended in subsection (b) to ask if account analysis is imaged monthly on electronic media.

The Monthly Statements section would be modified to specify that the bank must state when monthly statements will be available online and on paper. In addition, language would be amended to ask if statements are imaged and/or put on electronic media monthly.

Two new sections would be added under Optional Services. Section 5 relates to check printing and asks if the bank offers check printing services, the deadline for same-day and next day printing, and where checks are printed and sent from. Section 6 relates to smart safes and asks if the bank offers smart safes and if smart safes are cost effective given the district's deposit history.

The SBOE approved the proposed amendment for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017, meeting.

The proposed amendment would modify the forms for school districts to use to select and contract with a depository bank, but the process would remain the same.

The proposed amendment would have no new locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Leo Lopez, associate commissioner for school finance / chief school finance officer, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed amendment is in effect there will be no additional costs to state government as a result of enforcing or administering the proposed amendment. The proposed amendment may provide some economic benefit to school districts by allowing for more competition from banks to bid or propose on the depository contract. However, it is not possible to determine the estimated savings because individual banks set the rates offered to school districts.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed amendment is in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Mr. Lopez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed amendment is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the amendment will be an updated process for a district to select and contract with a depository bank. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed amendment.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. A request for a public hearing on the proposed amendment submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendment is proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(34), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to prescribe uniform bid blanks for school districts to use in selecting a depository bank; TEC, §45.206, which requires school districts to use the uniform bid blank and request for proposal forms prescribed by the SBOE when selecting a depository bank; and TEC, §45.208, which requires that a school district and a bank selected as a depository enter into a depository contract using the form prescribed by the SBOE.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendment implements the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(34), 45.206, and 45.208.

§109.51.Uniform Depository Bank Bid or Proposal Form.

(a) At least 60 days before the end of the current depository contract, each school district must decide to use either competitive bidding or a request for proposals to choose a new depository.

(b) At least 30 days before the end of the current depository contract, the district must mail the uniform blank form for the selected process to each bank located in the district. The district must use either the uniform bid form specified in subsection (c) of this section or the uniform proposal form specified in subsection (d) of this section. The district may add other terms to the uniform bid or proposal form if the added terms do not unfairly restrict competition between banks as stated in the Texas Education Code, §45.206(b). The district must keep the selected bid or proposal form in the district and make it available to the Texas Education Agency upon request.

(c) This subsection provides the uniform bid blank form, entitled "Bid Form for Depository Services."

Figure: 19 TAC §109.51(c) (.pdf)

[Figure: 19 TAC §109.51(c)]

(d) This subsection provides the uniform proposal blank form, entitled "Proposal Form for Depository Services."

Figure: 19 TAC §109.51(d) (.pdf)

[Figure: 19 TAC §109.51(d)]

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700677

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 110. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes new §§110.1-110.7 and 110.21-110.24, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for English language arts and reading. The proposed new sections would add new English language arts and reading TEKS for elementary and middle school for implementation in the 2019-2020 school year.

Applications for appointment to English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees were accepted by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) from March 5, 2015, through April 6, 2015. The applications received were provided to SBOE members at the April 2015 meeting, and nominations for English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees and appointments of expert reviewers were made in spring 2015. Committee members were notified of the appointment in July 2015. The expert reviewers completed their review of the current TEKS and submitted initial reports to the SBOE in July 2015. Committee members participated in a training webinar in August 2015 in preparation for the first face-to-face meeting. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened in Austin in September 2015 to begin work on draft recommendations for the TEKS. The committees convened again in November 2015 to complete their initial draft recommendations.

In December 2015, the first draft recommendations were provided to the board and to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website for informal public feedback. In accordance with the board's review process, each of the expert reviewers and one member of each TEKS review committee presented invited testimony at the January 2016 meeting.

The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened for a third time in February 2016 in order to review feedback and work on the vertical alignment of the TEKS across grade levels and subjects. At the request of the board chair, representatives from each of the vertical alignment committees were asked to attend the April 2016 meeting to answer questions from board members. At that time, the board provided additional direction for the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committee members to address at their next meeting.

The committees met for a fourth time in April 2016 to address the board's direction and finalize their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committees' final recommendations were provided to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website in June 2016.

Representatives from the TEKS review committees convened in Austin in June 2016 to review the drafts and provide feedback regarding whether the recommended TEKS for each grade level or course can reasonably be taught within the amount of time typically allotted for the subject or course prior to the end of the school year or a state end-of-course assessment required by TEC, §39.023, as applicable.

At the July 2016 meeting, the committee heard invited testimony from board-appointed expert reviewers regarding their feedback on the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees' final recommendations. At that meeting, the board discussed next steps, reviewed timeline considerations for issuance of a proclamation for instructional materials for English and Spanish language arts and reading, and requested that staff make technical edits to the proposed revisions. The board also requested that the SBOE-appointed experts review the edited final recommendations and make suggestions to ensure the appropriate vertical alignment of the proposed TEKS. Additionally, the board requested feedback on the proposed revisions to the English language arts and reading TEKS from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. The expert reviewers met in August 2016 and again in November 2016 to work on their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The expert reviewers also met virtually with representatives from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board panel to discuss higher education recommendations. Drafts resulting from that work were provided at the November 2016 meeting. At that time, the SBOE requested that the expert reviewers finalize their recommendations. The expert reviewers conducted virtual meetings in November 2016 and December 2016 to complete their recommendations.

The SBOE approved the proposed new English language arts and reading TEKS for elementary and middle school for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017 meeting. Also at the February meeting, the SBOE postponed consideration of the English language arts and reading TEKS for high school until the April 2017 meeting.

The proposed new sections would have no new procedural and reporting implications.

The proposed new section would have no new locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and support services, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed new sections are in effect there will be fiscal implications for the state. Implications for the TEA in fiscal years 2015, 2016, and 2017 include reimbursing committee members and expert reviewers for travel to review and revise the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. There are also implications for the TEA to create professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the revisions to the TEKS. For fiscal year 2015, the estimated cost to the TEA for reviewing and revising the TEKS was $4,700; for fiscal year 2016, the estimated cost was $275,000; and for fiscal year 2017, the estimated cost is $3,500. The TEA does not anticipate any implications for the state beyond fiscal year 2017.

There are anticipated fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools to implement the new TEKS, which may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed new sections are in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed new sections are in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the new sections will be better alignment of the TEKS and coordination of the standards with the adoption of instructional materials. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed new sections.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. A request for a public hearing on the proposed amendment submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register. The SBOE has specifically requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the proposed student expectations. Specific feedback related to the time needed to teach individual concepts would be helpful.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§110.1 - 110.7

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§110.1.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Elementary, Adopted 2017.

(a) The provisions of this section and §§110.2-110.7 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading as adopted in §§110.2-110.7 of this title.

(c) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§110.2-110.7 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§110.2-110.7 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e) Sections 110.11-110.16 of this title shall be superseded by the implementation of this section and §§110.2-110.7 of this title.

§110.2.English Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively and ask questions to understand information;

(B) follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself using common greetings and expressing needs and wants.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) identifying and producing rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

(iv) identifying syllables in spoken words;

(v) blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

(vii) blending spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words;

(viii) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words;

(ix) manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word; and

(x) segmenting spoken one-syllable words into individual phonemes;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

(ii) using letter-sound relationships to decode, including VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words;

(iii) recognizing that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted such as it - pit - tip - tap; and

(iv) identifying and reading at least 25 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with VC, CVC, and CCVC;

(ii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iii) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by:

(i) identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

(ii) holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

(iii) recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

(iv) recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

(v) identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

(C) identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) provide an oral or pictorial response to a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) identify and describe the main character(s);

(C) describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution for texts read aloud with adult assistance; and

(D) describe the setting.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature, including folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems;

(C) participate in and identify main characters in a play;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central or main idea with adult assistance;

(ii) titles and simple graphics to gain information; and

(iii) the steps in a sequence with adult assistance; and

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(9) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss with adult assistance the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts with adult assistance using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences;

(ii) verbs;

(iii) singular and plural nouns;

(iv) descriptive adjectives;

(v) subjective case pronouns;

(vi) capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and name; and

(vii) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and

(E) share writing.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and

(B) dictate or compose informational texts.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.3.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself and others, relating experiences to a classmate, and expressing needs and feelings.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable words;

(iv) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed;

(v) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words, including initial and/or final consonant blends;

(vi) manipulating phonemes within base words; and

(vii) segmenting spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes, including words with initial and/or final consonant blends;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words in isolation and in context by applying common letter sound correspondences;

(ii) decoding words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii) decoding words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including vowel digraphs and diphthongs; and r-controlled syllables;

(iv) using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words and contractions;

(v) decoding words with inflectional endings, including -ed, -s, and -es; and

(vi) identifying and reading at least 100 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with closed syllables, open syllables, VCe syllables, vowel teams, and r-controlled syllables;

(ii) spelling words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iv) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and

(F) develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings;

(C) identify the meaning of words with the affixes -s, -ed, and -ing; and

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, categories, and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character(s) and how their feelings and actions change;

(C) describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and alliteration in a variety of poems;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central or main idea with adult assistance;

(ii) features and simple graphics to locate or gain information; and

(iii) temporal sequence and description; and

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person text.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past and present verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) descriptive adjectives;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions;

(vii) subjective case pronouns;

(viii) capitalization for the beginning of sentences and the pronoun "I"; and

(ix) punctuation marks at the end of declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) dictate or compose informational texts, including procedural texts; and

(C) dictate or compose correspondence.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.4.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others; and

(E) develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by

(i) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one syllable and multi-syllable words;

(ii) producing a series of rhyming words;

(iii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed; and

(iv) manipulating phonemes within base words;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with short, long, or variant vowels, trigraphs, and blends;

(ii) decoding words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iv) decoding compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of syllable division such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi) decoding words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est; and

(vii) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling one-syllable and multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii) spelling compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns, including words with double consonants in the middle of the word; and

(vi) spelling words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est; and

(D) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;

(C) identify the meaning of words with affixes un-, re-, -ly, -er, and -est (comparative and superlative), and -ion/tion/sion; and

(D) identify and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the internal and external traits of the main character(s);

(C) describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the importance of the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;

(B) explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central or main idea with adult assistance;

(ii) features and graphics to locate and gain information; and

(iii) chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly; and

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;

(E) identify the use of first or third person in a text; and

(F) explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) descriptive adjectives and articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) objective case pronouns;

(viii) capitalization of months, days of the week, and the salutation and conclusion of a letter; and

(ix) end punctuation and apostrophes; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports; and

(C) compose correspondence.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) cite sources appropriately; and

(G) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.5.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules, norms, and protocols; and

(E) develop social communication such as conversing politely in all situations.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns such as eigh, ough, and en;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv) decoding words using knowledge of syllable division such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV with accent shifts;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(vi) decoding words using knowledge of changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vii) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling homophones;

(iii) spelling compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of syllable division such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vii) spelling words with changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter; and

(D) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly in cursive leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of words with affixes such as im- (into), non-, dis-, in- (not, non), pre-, -ness, -y, and -ful; and

(D) identify and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in a text.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to a literary or informational text that demonstrates an understanding of a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer the theme of a work, distinguishing theme from topic;

(B) explain the relationship among the major and minor characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the problem, and the resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths;

(B) explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea;

(ii) features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding of the text; and

(iii) cause and effect and problem and solution; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) explain the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) descriptive and limiting adjectives;

(v) adverbs that convey time and manner;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) possessive pronouns;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound predicates, subjects, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of official titles of people, holidays, and geographical names and places; and

(x) punctuation marks, including apostrophes in contractions and possessives, commas in a series, and dates; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives, fiction, and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) create a works cited page; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.6.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with specific orthographic patterns and rules, including regular and irregular plurals;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division such as VV;

(iv) decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vi) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling more difficult homophones;

(iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv) spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi) spelling words with changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C) write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) determine the meaning of words with affixes such as mis-, sub-, -ment, and -ity/ty and roots such as auto, graph, and meter; and

(D) identify and explain the meaning of homophones such as reign/rain.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to compare and contrast ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer basic themes supported by text evidence;

(B) explain the interactions of the characters andthe changes they undergo;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea;

(ii) features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding of the text; and

(iii) compare and contrast; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify the use of hyperbole.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) irregular verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) descriptive adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and intensity;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) reflexive pronouns;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound predicates, subjects, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of historical periods, events, and documents; titles of books; stories and essays; and languages, races, and nationalities; and

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in compound sentences and quotation marks in dialogue; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.7.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret verbal and non-verbal messages, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding consonant changes, including (t) to (sh) such as in select and selection and (k) to (sh) such as music and musician;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllable;, vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(iv) decoding words using advanced knowledge of the influence of prefixes and suffixes on base words; and

(v) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling consonant changes, including (t) to (sh) such as in select and selection and (k) to (sh) such as music and musician;

(iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv) spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi) spelling words with changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, and word origin;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of words with affixes such as trans-, super-, -ive, and -logy and roots such as geo and photo; and

(D) identify and explain the meaning of adages and puns.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to compare and contrast ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within a text using text evidence;

(B) analyze the relationships of and conflicts among the characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) analyze the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain the use of sound devices and figurative language and distinguish between the poet and the speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea;

(ii) features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding of text; and

(iii) logical order and order of importance; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for or against an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) examine how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the purpose of hyperbole and stereotyping.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) irregular verbs;

(iii) collective nouns;

(iv) descriptive adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and intensity;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vii) indefinite pronouns;

(viii) correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(ix) capitalization of abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in compound sentences and quotation marks in dialogue; and

(xi) proper mechanics, including italics and underlining for titles and emphasis; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) understand credibility of primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700685

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§110.21 - 110.24

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§110.21.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Middle School, Adopted 2017.

(a) The provisions of this section and §§110.22-110.24 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading as adopted in §§110.22-110.24 of this title.

(c) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§110.22-110.24 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§110.22-110.24 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e) Sections 110.18-110.20 of this title shall be superseded by the implementation of this section and §§110.22-110.24 of this title.

§110.22.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;

(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as mis/mit, bene, man, vac, scrib/script, and jur/jus.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response with accurate text evidence to compare sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback; and

(D) compare and contrast historical and cultural settings across texts.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;

(B) analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) identify the elements of a play, including acts, scenes, stage directions, and scripted dialogue;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis;

(ii) features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information of the text; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(9) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice; and

(G) identify and explain the differences between the use of hyperbole and sarcasm in texts.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) consistent verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) indefinite pronouns;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions such as after, because, although, and if to form complex sentences;

(vii) capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(viii) commas in compound and complex sentences and after transitions, introductory words, and phrases;

(ix) proper mechanics, including italics and underlining for titles and emphasis;

(x) correct punctuation of dialogue; and

(xi) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its and it's and affect and effect; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement, genre characteristics, and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) reliability;

(ii) credibility and bias; and

(iii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(H) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.23.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others' ideas;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response with accurate text evidence to compare sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how characters' qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense, to advance the plot; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;

(B) analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) describe how playwright(s) develop characters through the dialogue and staging of their plays;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis;

(ii) graphic and text features; and

(iii) organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(9) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including subjective and objective point of view;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) identify and explain loaded language, strawmen, and ad hominem arguments.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions,including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) consistent verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) relative pronouns;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions such as since, while, and until to form complex sentences;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) commas in compound and complex sentences and after transitions, introductory words, and phrases;

(ix) semicolons when appropriate;

(x) correct punctuation of dialogue and citation(s); and

(xi) correct spelling; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement, genre characteristics, and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) reliability;

(ii) credibility and bias; and

(iii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(H) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§110.24.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message by summarizing, asking questions, and making comments;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as ast, qui, path, mand/mend, and duc.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response with accurate and relevant text evidence and commentary to compare texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze relationships among thematic development, characterization, point of view, setting, and plot in a variety of literary texts;

(B) analyze how characters' motivations and behaviors influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) explain how the setting influences the values and beliefs of characters.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, fantasy, science fiction, and short stories;

(B) analyze the effect of graphical elements such as punctuation and line length in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry;

(C) describe how playwright(s) develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis;

(ii) footnotes, endnotes, and citations; and

(iii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim and analyzing the argument;

(ii) identifying and explaining the counter argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(9) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as extended metaphor achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and analyze the use of literary devices, including multiple points of view and irony;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to the mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) identify and explain the use of rhetorical questions, bandwagon appeals, and sweeping generalizations.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex and compound-complex sentences;

(ii) consistent verb tenses;

(iii) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(iv) relative pronouns;

(v) correct capitalization;

(vi) commas in nonrestrictive phrases and clauses;

(vii) semicolons, colons, and parentheses when appropriate;

(viii) correct punctuation of dialogue and citation(s); and

(ix) correct spelling; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement, genre characteristics, and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) reliability;

(ii) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(iii) faulty reasoning such as bandwagon appeals, repetition, and loaded language;

(H) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700686

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 112. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SCIENCE

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes amendments to §§112.10 - 112.20, 112.31, 112.34, 112.35, 112.38, and 112.39, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for science. The proposed amendments would streamline the science TEKS with an implementation date of the 2017-2018 school year.

Applications for appointment to science TEKS streamlining committees were accepted by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) from February 4, 2016, through March 14, 2016. The applications received were provided to SBOE members at the April 2016 meeting, and nominations for science TEKS streamlining committees were made in summer 2016. Committee members were notified of the appointment in June 2016.

Science TEKS streamlining committee members participated in a training webinar in July 2016 in preparation for the first face-to-face meeting. Also in July 2016, the science TEKS streamlining committees convened in Austin to begin work on draft recommendations for the TEKS. The committees convened again in September 2016 to complete their initial draft recommendations.

In October 2016, the committee draft recommendations were provided to the board and posted to the TEA website for informal public feedback. In accordance with the board's TEKS streamlining process, one member of each TEKS review committee presented invited testimony at the November 2016 meeting. The science TEKS streamlining committees convened for a third time in January 2017 in order to review feedback and finalize their recommendations.

The SBOE approved the proposed amendments for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017, meeting.

The proposed amendments would have no procedural and reporting requirements.

The proposed amendments would have no new locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and support services, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed amendments are in effect there will be fiscal implications for the state. For fiscal year 2017, implications will include reimbursing committee members for travel to review and streamline the science TEKS. There are also implications for the TEA if the state develops professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the streamlined TEKS. For fiscal year 2016, the estimated cost to the TEA for reviewing and revising the TEKS was $31,500, and for fiscal year 2017, the estimated cost is $68,000. Any professional development that is created would be based on whether the TEA receives an appropriation for professional development in the next biennium. The TEA does not anticipate any implications for the state beyond fiscal year 2017.

There may be fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools to implement the streamlined TEKS, which may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed amendments are in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed amendments are in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the amendments will be better alignment of the TEKS and streamlining to ensure the standards can be reasonably taught within the amount of time typically allotted for the subject or course. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed amendments.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. A request for a public hearing on the proposed amendment submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register. The SBOE has specifically requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the proposed student expectations. Specific feedback related to the time needed to teach individual concepts would be helpful.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§112.10 - 112.16

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§112.10.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Elementary, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

The provisions of §§112.11-112.16 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2017-2018 [2010-2011] school year.

§112.11.Science, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Kindergarten, students observe and describe the natural world using their senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.

(A) A central theme throughout the study of scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations.

(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, heat, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.

(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. Other patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.

(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate the life cycle of plants and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.

(2) [(1)] Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) [(2)] Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) [(3)] The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

[(4) In Kindergarten, students observe and describe the natural world using their five senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.]

[(A) A central theme throughout the study of scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations.]

[(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size and mass, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, heat, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.]

[(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. Other patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.]

[(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate the life cycle of plants and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.]

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:

(A) identify, discuss, and demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined [described] in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards [the Texas Safety Standards] during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately; and

[(B) discuss the importance of safe practices to keep self and others safe and healthy; and]

(B) [(C)] demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reusing or recycling paper, plastic, and metal.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations [such as ways objects move];

(C) collect data and make observations using simple [equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, and non-standard measurement] tools;

(D) record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words; and

(E) communicate observations [with others] about simple descriptive investigations.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem such as the impact of littering [on the playground] and propose a solution [in his/her own words];

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns in nature [such as the shapes of leaves]; and

(C) explore that scientists investigate different things in the natural world and use tools to help in their investigations.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices[, including clocks and timers]; non-standard measuring items [such as paper clips and clothespins]; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers [and wind socks]; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use the senses as a tool of observation to identify properties and patterns of organisms, objects, and events in the environment.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record properties of objects, including [relative size and mass, such as] bigger or smaller, [and] heavier or lighter, shape, color, and texture; and

(B) observe, record, and discuss how materials can be changed by heating or cooling.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy, force, and motion are related and are a part of their everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) use the [five] senses to explore different forms of energy such as light, heat, and sound;

(B) explore interactions between magnets and various materials;

(C) observe and describe the location of an object in relation to another such as above, below, behind, in front of, and beside; and

(D) observe and describe the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zigzag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, describe, [compare,] and sort rocks by size, shape, color, and texture;

(B) observe and describe physical properties of natural sources of water, including color and clarity; and

(C) give examples of ways rocks, soil, and water are useful.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe weather changes from day to day and over seasons;

(B) identify events that have repeating patterns, including seasons of the year and day and night; and

(C) observe, describe, and illustrate objects in the sky such as the clouds, Moon, and stars, including the Sun.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that plants and animals have basic needs and depend on the living and nonliving things around them for survival. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between living things, once-living things such as fallen leaves, and nonliving things based upon whether they have or have had basic needs and produce offspring; and

(B) examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs such as food, water, and shelter for animals and air, water, nutrients, sunlight, and space for plants.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics such as color, size, body covering, or leaf shape;

(B) identify basic parts of plants [such as roots, stem, and leaves] and [parts of] animals [such as head, eyes, and limbs];

(C) identify ways that young plants resemble the parent plant; and

(D) observe changes that are part of a simple life cycle of a plant: seed, seedling, plant, flower, and fruit.

§112.12.Science, Grade 1, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 1, students observe and describe the natural world using their senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand the world around them in the context of scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.

(A) A central theme in first grade science is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools in order to explain scientific concepts and processes like scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations.

(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, heat, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.

(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. In addition, patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.

(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate life cycles of animals and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.

(2) [(1)] Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) [(2)] Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) [(3)] The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

[(4) In Grade 1, students observe and describe the natural world using their five senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand the world around them in the context of scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.]

[(A) A central theme in first grade science is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools in order to explain scientific concepts and processes like scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations.]

[(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size and mass, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, heat, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.]

[(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. In addition, patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.]

[(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate life cycles of animals and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.]

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:

(A) identify, discuss, [recognize] and demonstrate safe and healthy practices as outlined [described] in Texas Education agency-approved safety standards [the Texas Safety Standards] during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately; and

[(B) recognize the importance of safe practices to keep self and others safe and healthy; and]

(B) [(C)] identify and learn how to use natural resources and materials, including conservation and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metals.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations [such as ways objects move];

(C) collect data and make observations using simple [equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, and non-standard measurement] tools;

(D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words; and

(E) communicate observations and provide reasons for explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem [such as finding a home for a classroom pet] and propose a solution [in his/her own words];

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and

(C) describe what scientists do.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate; timing devices[, including clocks and timers]; non-standard measuring items [such as paper clips and clothespins]; weather instruments such as [classroom] demonstration thermometers and wind socks; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as aquariums and terrariums; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects using non-standard units.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) classify objects by observable properties [of the materials from which they are made] such as larger and smaller, heavier and lighter, shape, color, [and] texture, and the materials from which they are made; and

(B) predict and identify changes in materials caused by heating and cooling [such as ice melting, water freezing, and water evaporating].

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that force, motion, and energy are related and are a part of everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and discuss how different forms of energy such as light, heat, and sound are important to everyday life;

(B) predict and describe how a magnet can be used to push or pull an object; and

[(C) describe the change in the location of an object such as closer to, nearer to, and farther from; and]

(C) [(D)] demonstrate and record the ways that objects can move [such as in a straight line, zig zag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow].

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, and water that can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, compare, describe, and sort components of soil by size, texture, and color;

(B) identify and describe a variety of natural sources of water, including streams, lakes, and oceans; and

(C) identify [gather evidence of] how rocks, soil, and water are used [help] to make [useful] products.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes the air around us and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) record weather information, including relative temperature [,] such as hot or cold, clear or cloudy, calm or windy, and rainy or icy;

(B) observe and record changes in the appearance of objects in the sky such as [clouds,] the Moon[,] and stars, including the Sun;

(C) identify characteristics of the seasons of the year and day and night; and

(D) demonstrate that air is all around us and observe that wind is moving air.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that the living environment is composed of relationships between organisms and the life cycles that occur. The student is expected to:

(A) sort and classify living, once-living, and nonliving things based upon whether [or not] they have or have had basic needs and produce offspring;

(B) analyze and record examples of interdependence found in various situations such as terrariums and aquariums or pet and caregiver; and

(C) gather evidence of interdependence among living organisms such as energy transfer through food chains or [and] animals using plants for shelter.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats;

(B) identify and compare the parts of plants;

(C) compare ways that young animals resemble their parents; and

(D) observe and record life cycles of animals such as a chicken, frog, or fish.

§112.13.Science, Grade 2, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 2, careful observation and investigation are used to learn about the natural world and reveal patterns, changes, and cycles. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by using observation and investigations and that the information gathered in these investigations may change as new observations are made. As students participate in investigation, they develop the skills necessary to do science as well as develop new science concepts.

(A) A central theme throughout the study of scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations.

(B) Within the physical environment, students expand their understanding of the properties of objects such as temperature and flexibility then use those properties to compare, classify, and then combine the objects to do something that they could not do before. Students manipulate objects to demonstrate a change in motion and position.

(C) Within the natural environment, students will observe the properties of earth materials as well as predictable patterns that occur on Earth and in the sky. The students understand that those patterns are used to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation.

(D) Within the living environment, students explore patterns, systems, and cycles by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all the components within their habitat. Students examine how living organisms depend on each other and on their environment.

(2) [(1)] Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) [(2)] Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) [(3)] The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 60% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

[(4) In Grade 2, careful observation and investigation are used to learn about the natural world and reveal patterns, changes, and cycles. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by using observation and investigations and that the information gathered in these may change as new observations are made. As students participate in investigation, they develop the skills necessary to do science as well as develop new science concepts.]

[(A) Within the physical environment, students expand their understanding of the properties of objects such as shape, mass, temperature, and flexibility then use those properties to compare, classify, and then combine the objects to do something that they could not do before. Students manipulate objects to demonstrate a change in motion and position.]

[(B) Within the natural environment, students will observe the properties of earth materials as well as predictable patterns that occur on Earth and in the sky. The students understand that those patterns are used to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation.]

[(C) Within the living environment, students explore patterns, systems, and cycles by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all the components within their habitat. Students examine how living organisms depend on each other and on their environment.]

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) identify, describe, and demonstrate safe practices as outlined [described] in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards [the Texas Safety Standards] during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately; and

[(B) describe the importance of safe practices; and]

(B) [(C)] identify and demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metal.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events during observations and investigations;

(B) plan and conduct descriptive investigations [such as how organisms grow];

(C) collect data from observations using scientific [simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, thermometers, and non-standard measurement] tools;

(D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words;

(E) communicate observations and justify explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations; and

(F) compare results of investigations with what students and scientists know about the world.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem [in his/her own words] and propose a task and solution for the problem [such as lack of water in a habitat];

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and

(C) identify what a scientist is and explore what different scientists do.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, rulers, primary balances, plastic beakers, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate; timing devices[, including clocks and stopwatches]; weather instruments such as thermometers, wind vanes, and rain gauges; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects [using non-standard units that approximate metric units].

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical properties and those properties determine how it is described, classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter by physical properties, including [shape, relative mass,] relative temperature, texture, flexibility, and whether material is a solid or liquid;

(B) compare changes in materials caused by heating and cooling;

(C) demonstrate that things can be done to materials such as cutting, folding, sanding, and melting to change their physical properties [such as cutting, folding, sanding, and melting]; and

(D) combine materials that when put together can do things that they cannot do by themselves such as building a tower or a bridge and justify the selection of those materials based on their physical properties.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate the effects on objects [an object] by increasing or decreasing amounts of light, heat, and sound energy such as how the color of an object appears different in dimmer light or how heat melts butter;

(B) observe and identify how magnets are used in everyday life; and

(C) trace and compare patterns of movement of objects such as sliding, rolling, and spinning [the changes in the position of an object] over time. [such as a cup rolling on the floor and a car rolling down a ramp; and]

[(D) compare patterns of movement of objects such as sliding, rolling, and spinning.]

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, [and] describe, and compare rocks by size, texture, and color;

(B) identify and compare the properties of natural sources of freshwater and saltwater; and

(C) distinguish between natural and manmade resources.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, record, and graph weather information, including temperature, wind conditions, precipitation, and cloud coverage, in order to identify patterns in the data;

(B) identify the importance of weather and seasonal information to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation; and

[(C) explore the processes in the water cycle, including evaporation, condensation, and precipitation, as connected to weather conditions; and]

(C) [(D)] observe, describe, and record patterns of objects in the sky, including the appearance of the Moon.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs that must be met for them to survive within their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the basic needs of plants and animals;

(B) identify factors in the environment, including temperature and precipitation, that affect growth and behavior such as migration, hibernation, and dormancy of living things; and

(C) compare [and give examples of] the ways living organisms depend on each other and on their environments such as through food chains [within a garden, park, beach, lake, and wooded area].

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics and behaviors of animals help them meet their basic needs [such as fins help fish move and balance in the water];

(B) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics of plants help them meet their basic needs such as stems carry water throughout the plant; and

(C) investigate and record some of the unique stages that insects such as grasshoppers and butterflies undergo during their life cycle.

§112.14.Science, Grade 3, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 3, students learn that the study of science uses appropriate tools and safe practices in planning and implementing investigations, asking and answering questions, collecting data by observing and measuring, and using models to support scientific inquiry about the natural world.

(A) Within the physical environment, students recognize that patterns, relationships, and cycles exist in matter. Students will investigate the physical properties of matter and will learn that changes occur. They explore mixtures and investigate light, sound, and thermal energy in everyday life. Students manipulate objects by pushing and pulling to demonstrate changes in motion and position.

(B) Within the natural environment, students investigate how the surface of Earth changes and provides resources that humans use. As students explore objects in the sky, they describe how relationships affect patterns and cycles on Earth. Students will construct models to demonstrate Sun, Earth, and Moon system relationships.

(C) Within the living environment, students explore patterns, systems, and cycles within environments by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all components of the natural environment. Students examine how the environment plays a key role in survival. Students know that when changes in the environment occur organisms may thrive, become ill, or perish.

(2) [(1)] Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) [(2)] Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) [(3)] The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information while addressing the content and vocabulary in physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 60% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

[(4) In Grade 3, students learn that the study of science uses appropriate tools and safe practices in planning and implementing investigations, asking and answering questions, collecting data by observing and measuring, and by using models to support scientific inquiry about the natural world.]

[(A) Students recognize that patterns, relationships, and cycles exist in matter. Students will investigate the physical properties of matter and will learn that changes occur. They explore mixtures and investigate light, sound, and heat/thermal energy in everyday life. Students manipulate objects by pushing and pulling to demonstrate changes in motion and position.]

[(B) Students investigate how the surface of Earth changes and provides resources that humans use. As students explore objects in the sky, they describe how relationships affect patterns and cycles on Earth. Students will construct models to demonstrate Sun, Earth, and Moon system relationships and will describe the Sun's role in the water cycle.]

[(C) Students explore patterns, systems, and cycles within environments by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all components of the natural environment. Students examine how the environment plays a key role in survival. Students know that when changes in the environment occur organisms may thrive, become ill, or perish.]

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school [and home] safety procedures and environmentally appropriate practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices as described in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards [the Texas Safety Standards] during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves[, including observing a schoolyard habitat]; and

(B) make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources by recycling or reusing materials such as paper, aluminum cans, and plastics.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking and answering questions, making inferences, and selecting and using equipment or technology needed, to solve a specific problem in the natural world;

(B) collect and record data by observing and measuring using the metric system and recognize differences between observed and measured data;

(C) construct maps, graphic organizers, simple tables, charts, and bar graphs using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate measured data;

(D) analyze and interpret patterns in data to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from investigations;

(E) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results; and

(F) communicate valid conclusions supported by data in writing, by drawing pictures, and through verbal discussion.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information, critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) [in all fields of science,] analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using [empirical] evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing[, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student];

[(B) draw inferences and evaluate accuracy of product claims found in advertisements and labels such as for toys and food;]

(B) [(C)] represent the natural world using models such as volcanoes or the Sun, Earth, and Moon system and identify their limitations, including size, properties, and materials; and

(C) [(D)] connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to [:]

[(A)] collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, wind vanes, rain gauges, pan balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, spring scales, hot plates, meter sticks, [compasses,] magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, [sound recorders,] and Sun, Earth, and Moon system models; timing devices[, including clocks and stopwatches]; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.[; and]

[(B) use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves.]

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, test, and record physical properties of matter, including temperature, mass, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float;

(B) describe and classify samples of matter as solids, liquids, and gases and demonstrate that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container;

(C) predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling such as ice becoming liquid water or condensation forming on the outside of a glass of ice water; and

(D) explore and recognize that a mixture is created when two materials are combined such as gravel and sand or [and] metal and plastic paper clips.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and that energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) explore different forms of energy, including mechanical, light, sound, and thermal [heat/thermal] in everyday life;

(B) demonstrate and observe how position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects [to show work being done] such as swings, balls, [pulleys,] and wagons; and

(C) observe forces such as magnetism and gravity acting on objects.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that Earth consists of natural resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to:

(A) explore and record how soils are formed by weathering of rock and the decomposition of plant and animal remains;

(B) investigate rapid changes in Earth's surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides; and

[(C) identify and compare different landforms, including mountains, hills, valleys, and plains; and]

(C) [(D)] explore the characteristics of natural resources that make them useful in products and materials such as clothing and furniture and how resources may be conserved.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, measure, record, and compare day-to-day weather changes in different locations at the same time that include air temperature, wind direction, and precipitation;

(B) describe and illustrate the Sun as a star composed of gases that provides light and heat energy [for the water cycle];

(C) construct models that demonstrate the relationship of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, including orbits and positions; and

(D) identify the planets in Earth's solar system and their position in relation to the Sun.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows [that organisms have characteristics that help them survive] and can describe patterns, cycles, systems, and relationships within the environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe the physical characteristics of environments and how they support populations and communities of plants and animals within an ecosystem;

(B) identify and describe the flow of energy in a food chain and predict how changes in a food chain affect the ecosystem such as removal of frogs from a pond or bees from a field; and

(C) describe environmental changes such as floods and droughts where some organisms thrive and others perish or move to new locations.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) explore how structures and functions of plants and animals allow them to survive in a particular environment; and

[(B) explore that some characteristics of organisms are inherited such as the number of limbs on an animal or flower color and recognize that some behaviors are learned in response to living in a certain environment such as animals using tools to get food; and]

(B) [(C)] investigate and compare how animals and plants undergo a series of orderly changes in their diverse life cycles such as tomato plants, frogs, and lady bugs.

§112.15.Science, Grade 4, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 4, investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and, based on new discoveries, are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(A) Within the physical environment, students know about the physical properties of matter including mass, volume, states of matter, temperature, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float. Students will differentiate among forms of energy including mechanical, light, sound, and thermal energy. Students will explore electrical circuits and design descriptive investigations to explore the effect of force on objects.

(B) Within the natural environment, students know that earth materials have properties that are constantly changing due to Earth's forces. The students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including renewable and nonrenewable, and their responsibility to conserve our natural resources for future generations. They will also explore Sun, Earth, and Moon relationships. The students will recognize that our major source of energy is the Sun.

(C) Within the living environment, students know and understand that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment. The students will recognize that plants and animals have basic needs, and they are met through a flow of energy known as food webs. Students will explore how all living organisms go through a life cycle and have structures that enable organisms to survive in their ecosystem.

(2) [(1)] Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) [(2)] Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) [(3)] The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 50% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

[(4) In Grade 4, investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.]

[(A) Within the natural environment, students know that earth materials have properties that are constantly changing due to Earth's forces. The students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including renewable and nonrenewable, and their responsibility to conserve our natural resources for future generations. They will also explore Sun, Earth, and Moon relationships. The students will recognize that our major source of energy is the Sun.]

[(B) Within the living environment, students know and understand that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment. The students will recognize that plants and animals have basic needs, and they are met through a flow of energy known as food webs. Students will explore how all living organisms go through a life cycle and that adaptations enable organisms to survive in their ecosystem.]

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations, following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards [the Texas Safety Standards] during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves, as appropriate; and

(B) make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources and reusing and recycling of materials such as paper, aluminum, glass, cans, and plastic.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking well defined [well-defined] questions, making inferences, and selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology to answer his/her questions;

(B) collect and record data by observing and measuring, using the metric system, and using descriptive words and numerals such as labeled drawings, writing, and concept maps;

(C) construct simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and maps using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate data;

(D) analyze data and interpret patterns to construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured;

(E) perform repeated investigations to increase the reliability of results; and

(F) communicate valid[,] oral[,] and written results supported by data.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) [in all fields of science,] analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using [empirical] evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing[, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student];

[(B) draw inferences and evaluate accuracy of services and product claims found in advertisements and labels such as for toys, food, and sunscreen;]

(B) [(C)] represent the natural world using models such as the water cycle and [rivers,] stream tables[, or fossils] and identify their limitations, including accuracy and size; and

(C) [(D)] connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools, materials, equipment, and models to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to[:]

[(A)] collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, mirrors, spring scales, [pan balances, triple beam] balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, [compasses,] magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices[, including clocks and stopwatches]; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.[; and]

[(B) use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves.]

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, compare, and contrast physical properties of matter, including [size,] mass, volume, states (solid, liquid, gas), temperature, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float; and

[(B) predict the changes caused by heating and cooling such as ice becoming liquid water and condensation forming on the outside of a glass of ice water; and]

(B) [(C)] compare and contrast a variety of mixtures, including [and] solutions [such as rocks in sand, sand in water, or sugar in water].

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy exists in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among forms of energy, including mechanical, sound, electrical, light, and thermal [heat/thermal];

(B) differentiate between conductors and insulators of thermal and electrical energy;

(C) demonstrate that electricity travels in a closed path, creating an electrical circuit[, and explore an electromagnetic field]; and

(D) design a descriptive investigation [an experiment] to explore [test] the effect of force on an object such as a push or a pull, gravity, friction, or magnetism.

(7) Earth and space. The students know that Earth consists of useful resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to:

(A) examine properties of soils, including color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants;

(B) observe and identify slow changes to Earth's surface caused by weathering, erosion, and deposition from water, wind, and ice; and

(C) identify and classify Earth's renewable resources, including air, plants, water, and animals,[;] and nonrenewable resources, including coal, oil, and natural gas,[;] and the importance of conservation.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, [and] record, and predict changes in weather [and make predictions using weather maps, weather symbols, and a map key];

(B) describe and illustrate the continuous movement of water above and on the surface of Earth through the water cycle and explain the role of the Sun as a major source of energy in this process; and

(C) collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in shadows, [tides,] seasons, and the observable appearance of the Moon over time.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows and understands that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate that most producers need sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make their own food, while consumers are dependent on other organisms for food; and

(B) describe the flow of energy through food webs, beginning with the Sun, and predict how changes in the ecosystem affect the food web [such as a fire in a forest].

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures and behaviors that help them survive within their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) explore how structures and functions [adaptations] enable organisms to survive in their environment [such as comparing birds' beaks and leaves on plants];

(B) explore and describe examples of traits that [demonstrate that some likenesses between parents and offspring] are inherited from parents to offspring[, passed from generation to generation] such as eye color and [in humans or] shapes of leaves and behaviors that are [in plants. Other likenesses are] learned such as [table manners or] reading a book and a wolf pack teaching their pups to hunt effectively [seals balancing balls on their noses]; and

(C) explore, illustrate, and compare life cycles in living organisms such as [butterflies,] beetles, crickets, radishes, or lima beans.

§112.16.Science, Grade 5, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 5, investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(A) Within the physical environment, students learn about the physical properties of matter, including magnetism, physical states of matter, relative density, solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate electrical and thermal energy. Students explore the uses of light, thermal, electrical, mechanical, and sound energies.

(B) Within the natural environment, students learn how changes occur on Earth's surface and that predictable patterns occur in the sky. Students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including nonrenewable and renewable.

(C) Within the living environment, students learn that structure and function of organisms can improve the survival of members of a species. Students learn to differentiate between inherited traits and learned behaviors.

(2) [(1)] Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(3) [(2)] Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(4) [(3)] The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 50% of instructional time.

(5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

[(4) In Grade 5, investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.]

[(A) Within the physical environment, students learn about the physical properties of matter, including magnetism, physical states of matter, relative density, solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate electrical and heat energy. Students explore the uses of light, thermal, electrical, and sound energies.]

[(B) Within the natural environment, students learn how changes occur on Earth's surface and that predictable patterns occur in the sky. Students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including nonrenewable, renewable, and alternative energy sources.]

[(C) Within the living environment, students learn that structure and function of organisms can improve the survival of members of a species. Students learn to differentiate between inherited traits and learned behaviors. Students learn that life cycles occur in animals and plants and that the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle occurs naturally to support the living environment.]

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as outlined [described] in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards [the Texas Safety Standards] during classroom and outdoor investigations using safety equipment, including safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and gloves, as appropriate; and

(B) make informed choices in the conservation, disposal, and recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) describe, plan, and implement simple experimental investigations testing one variable;

(B) ask well defined [well-defined] questions, formulate testable hypotheses, and select and use appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record information using [by] detailed observations and accurate measuring;

(D) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct (observable) and indirect (inferred) evidence;

(E) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results;

(F) communicate valid conclusions in both written and verbal forms; and

(G) construct appropriate simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using technology, including computers, to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) [in all fields of science,] analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using [empirical] evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing[, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student];

[(B) evaluate the accuracy of the information related to promotional materials for products and services such as nutritional labels;]

(B) [(C)] draw or develop a model that represents how something [works or looks] that cannot be seen such as the Sun, Earth, and Moon system and formation of sedimentary rock [how a soda dispensing machine] works or looks; and

(C) [(D)] connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to[:]

[(A)] collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, prisms, mirrors, [pan balances, triple beam] balances, spring scales, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices[, including clocks and stopwatches ]; and materials to support observations of habitats or organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.[; and]

[(B) use safety equipment, including safety goggles and gloves.]

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter based on measurable, testable, and observable physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating using water as a reference point), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy;

[(B) identify the boiling and freezing/melting points of water on the Celsius scale;]

(B) [(C)] demonstrate that some mixtures maintain physical properties of their ingredients such as iron filings and sand or sand and water; and

(C) [(D)] identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of mixtures [solutions] such as creating solutions by dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) explore the uses of energy, including mechanical, light, thermal, electrical, and sound energy;

(B) demonstrate that the flow of electricity in closed circuits [requires a complete path through which an electric current can pass and] can produce light, heat, or [and] sound;

(C) demonstrate that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object and is reflected or travels through one medium to another [and demonstrate that light can be reflected such as the use of mirrors or other shiny surfaces] and is refracted [such as the appearance of an object when observed through water]; and

(D) design a simple experimental investigation [an experiment] that tests the effect of force on an object.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows Earth's surface is constantly changing and consists of useful resources. The student is expected to:

(A) explore the processes that led to the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels; and

(B) recognize how landforms such as deltas, canyons, and sand dunes are the result of changes to Earth's surface by wind, water, or [and] ice.[;]

[(C) identify alternative energy resources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biofuels; and]

[(D) identify fossils as evidence of past living organisms and the nature of the environments at the time using models.]

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between weather and climate;

(B) explain how the Sun and the ocean interact in the water cycle;

(C) demonstrate that Earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours causing the day/night cycle and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky; and

(D) identify and compare the physical characteristics of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that there are relationships, systems, and cycles within environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe the way organisms live and survive in their ecosystem by interacting with the living (includes once-living) and nonliving [non-living] elements;

(B) describe [how] the flow of energy within a food web, including the roles of [derived from] the Sun, [used by] producers [to create their own food], [is transferred through a food chain and food web to] consumers, and decomposers;

(C) predict the effects of changes in ecosystems caused by living organisms, including humans, such as the overpopulation of grazers or the building of highways; and

(D) identify fossils as evidence of past living organisms and the nature of the environments at the time using models.

[(D) identify the significance of the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle to the survival of plants and animals.]

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms [undergo similar life processes and] have structures and behaviors that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the structures and functions of different species that help them live and survive such as hooves on prairie animals or webbed feet in aquatic animals; and

(B) differentiate between inherited traits of plants and animals such as spines on a cactus or shape of a beak and learned behaviors such as an animal learning tricks or a child riding a bicycle.[; and]

[(C) describe the differences between complete and incomplete metamorphosis of insects.]

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700679

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§112.17 - 112.20

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§112.17.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Middle School, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

The provisions of §§112.18-112.20 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2017-2018 [2010-2011] school year.

§112.18.Science, Grade 6, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) Introduction.

[(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Science, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.]

[(2) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.]

(1) [(3)] Grade 6 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on physical science. National standards in science are organized as multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale.

[(4)] The strands for Grade 6 include the following.[:]

(A) Scientific investigations and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy.

(i) Matter can be classified as elements, compounds, or mixtures. Students have already had experience with mixtures in Grade 5, so Grade 6 will concentrate on developing an understanding of elements and compounds. It is important that students learn the differences between elements and compounds based on observations, description of physical properties, and chemical reactions. Elements are represented by chemical symbols, while compounds are represented by chemical formulas. Subsequent grades will learn about the differences at the molecular and atomic level.

(ii) Elements are classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids based on their physical properties. The elements are divided into three groups on the Periodic Table. Each different substance usually has a different density, so density can be used as an identifying property. Therefore, calculating density aids classification of substances.

(iii) Energy resources are available on a renewable, nonrenewable, or indefinite basis. Understanding the origins and uses of these resources enables informed decision making. Students should consider the ethical/social issues surrounding Earth's natural energy resources, while looking at the advantages and disadvantages of their long-term uses.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Energy occurs in two types, potential and kinetic, and can take several forms. Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation. It can also be changed from one form to another. Students will investigate the relationship between force and motion using a variety of means, including calculations and measurements.

(D) Earth and space. The focus of this strand is on introducing Earth's processes. Students should develop an understanding of Earth as part of our solar system. The topics include organization of our solar system, the role of gravity, and space exploration.

(E) Organisms and environments. Students will gain an understanding of the broadest taxonomic classifications of organisms and how characteristics determine their classification. The other major topics developed in this strand include the interdependence between organisms and their environments and the levels of organization within an ecosystem.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Science, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards [the Texas Safety Standards]; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined [well-defined] questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well defined [well-defined ] questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as a model of Earth's layers;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools [to collect, record, and analyze information], including journals/notebooks, beakers, Petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, hot plates, test tubes, [triple beam] balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information [as needed to teach the curriculum]; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows the differences between elements and compounds. The student is expected to:

(A) know that an element is a pure substance represented by a chemical symbol and that a compound is a pure substance represented by a chemical formula [symbols];

(B) recognize that a limited number of the many known elements comprise the largest portion of solid Earth, living matter, oceans, and the atmosphere; and

[(C) differentiate between elements and compounds on the most basic level; and]

(C) [(D)] identify the formation of a new substance by using the evidence of a possible chemical change such as production of a gas, change in temperature, production of a precipitate, or color change.

(6) Matter and energy. The student knows matter has physical properties that can be used for classification. The student is expected to:

(A) compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties such as luster, conductivity, or malleability;

(B) calculate density to identify an unknown substance; and

(C) test the physical properties of minerals, including hardness, color, luster, and streak.

(7) Matter and energy. The student knows that some of Earth's energy resources are available on a nearly perpetual basis, while others can be renewed over a relatively short period of time. Some energy resources, once depleted, are essentially nonrenewable. The student is expected to [:]

[(A)] research and discuss [debate ] the advantages and disadvantages of using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar resources.[; and]

[(B) design a logical plan to manage energy resources in the home, school, or community.]

(8) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows force and motion are related to potential and kinetic energy. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy;

(B) identify and describe the changes in position, direction, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces;

(C) calculate average speed using distance and time measurements;

(D) measure and graph changes in motion; and

(E) investigate how inclined planes [and pulleys] can be used to change the amount of force to move an object.

(9) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that the Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just changes form. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation;

(B) verify through investigations that thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern from warmer to cooler until all the substances attain the same temperature such as an ice cube melting; and

(C) demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical energy to light energy.

(10) Earth and space. The student understands the structure of Earth, the rock cycle, and plate tectonics. The student is expected to:

(A) build a model to illustrate the compositional and mechanical [structural] layers of Earth, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, asthenosphere, and lithosphere;

(B) classify rocks as metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary by the processes of their formation;

(C) identify the major tectonic plates, including Eurasian, African, Indo-Australian, Pacific, North American, and South American; and

(D) describe how plate tectonics causes major geological events such as ocean basin formation [basins], earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.

(11) Earth and space. The student understands the organization of our solar system and the relationships among the various bodies that comprise it. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the physical properties, locations, and movements of the Sun, planets, [Galilean] moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets;

(B) understand that gravity is the force that governs the motion of our solar system; and

(C) describe the history and future of space exploration, including the types of equipment and transportation needed for space travel.

(12) Organisms and environments. The student knows all organisms are classified into domains [Domains] and kingdoms [Kingdoms]. Organisms within these taxonomic groups share similar characteristics that [which ] allow them to interact with the living and nonliving parts of their ecosystem. The student is expected to:

(A) understand that all organisms are composed of one or more cells;

(B) recognize that the presence of a nucleus is a key factor used to determine [determines] whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic;

(C) recognize that the broadest taxonomic classification of living organisms is divided into currently recognized domains [Domains];

(D) identify the basic characteristics of organisms, including prokaryotic or eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular, autotrophic or heterotrophic, and mode of reproduction, that further classify them in the currently recognized kingdoms [Kingdoms];

(E) describe biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem in which organisms interact; and

(F) diagram the levels of organization within an ecosystem, including organism, population, community, and ecosystem.

§112.19.Science, Grade 7, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) Introduction.

[(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.]

[(2) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.]

(1) [(3)] Grade 7 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on organisms and the environment. National standards in science are organized as [a] multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale.

[(4)] The strands for Grade 7 include the following.[:]

(A) Scientific investigation and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy. Matter and energy are conserved throughout living systems. Radiant energy from the Sun drives much of the flow of energy throughout living systems due to the process of photosynthesis in organisms described as producers. Most consumers then depend on producers to meet their energy needs. [Decomposers play an important role in recycling matter. Organic compounds are composed of carbon and other elements that are recycled due to chemical changes that rearrange the elements for the particular needs of that living system. Large molecules such as carbohydrates are composed of chains of smaller units such as sugars, similar to a train being composed of multiple box cars.] Subsequent grade levels will learn about the differences at the molecular and atomic level.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Force, motion, and energy are observed in living systems and the environment in several ways. Interactions between muscular and skeletal systems allow the body to apply forces and transform energy both internally and externally. Force and motion can also describe the direction and growth of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism. Catastrophic events of weather systems such as hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes can shape and restructure the environment through the force and motion evident in them. Weathering, erosion, and deposition occur in environments due to the forces of gravity, wind, ice, and water.

(D) Earth and space. Earth and space phenomena can be observed in a variety of settings. Both natural events and human activities can impact Earth systems. There are characteristics of Earth and relationships to objects in our solar system that allow life to exist.

(E) Organisms and environments.

(i) Students will understand the relationship between living organisms and their environment. Different environments support different living organisms that are adapted to that region of Earth. Organisms are living systems that maintain a steady state with that environment and whose balance may be disrupted by internal and external stimuli. External stimuli include human activity or the environment. Successful organisms can reestablish a balance through different processes such as a feedback mechanism. Ecological succession can be seen on a broad or small scale.

(ii) Students learn that all organisms obtain energy, get rid of wastes, grow, and reproduce. During both sexual and asexual reproduction, traits are passed onto the next generation. These traits are contained in genetic material that is found on genes within a chromosome from the parent. Changes in traits sometimes occur in a population over many generations. One of the ways a change can occur is through the process of natural selection. Students extend their understanding of structures in living systems from a previous focus on external structures to an understanding of internal structures and functions within living things.

(iii) All living organisms are made up of smaller units called cells. All cells use energy, get rid of wastes, and contain genetic material. Students will compare plant and animal cells and understand the internal structures within them that allow them to obtain energy, get rid of wastes, grow, and reproduce in different ways. Cells can organize into tissues, tissues into organs, and organs into organ systems. Students will learn the major functions of human body systems such as the ability of the integumentary system to protect against infection, injury, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation; regulate body temperature; and remove waste.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of the instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards [the Texas Safety Standards]; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined [well-defined] questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well defined [well-defined ] questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as human body systems and plant and animal cells;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Science investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools [to collect, record, and analyze information], including life science models, hand lenses [lens], stereoscopes, microscopes, beakers, Petri dishes, microscope slides, graduated cylinders, test tubes, meter sticks, metric rulers, metric tape measures, timing devices, hot plates, balances, thermometers, calculators, water test kits, computers, temperature and pH probes, collecting nets, insect traps, globes, digital cameras, journals/notebooks, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information [as needed to teach the curriculum]; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis; and

[(B) demonstrate and explain the cycling of matter within living systems such as in the decay of biomass in a compost bin; and]

(B) [(C)] diagram the flow of energy through living systems, including food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.

(6) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical and chemical properties and can undergo physical and chemical changes. The student is expected to[:]

[(A) identify that organic compounds contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, or sulfur;]

[(B)] distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter in the digestive system.[; and]

[(C) recognize how large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules such as carbohydrates can be broken down into sugars.]

(7) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that there is a relationship among force, motion, and energy. The student is expected to:

[(A) contrast situations where work is done with different amounts of force to situations where no work is done such as moving a box with a ramp and without a ramp, or standing still;]

(A) [(B)] illustrate the transformation of energy within an organism such as the transfer from chemical energy to heat and thermal energy in digestion; and

(B) [(C)] demonstrate and illustrate forces that affect motion in organisms [everyday life] such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, [and] geotropism, and circulation of blood.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that natural events and human activity can impact Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) predict and describe how [different types of] catastrophic events such as floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes impact ecosystems [such as floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes];

(B) analyze the effects of weathering, erosion, and deposition on the environment in ecoregions of Texas; and

(C) model the effects of human activity on groundwater and surface water in a watershed.

(9) Earth and space. The student knows components of our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the characteristics of objects in our solar system that allow life to exist such as the proximity of the Sun, presence of water, and composition of the atmosphere; and

(B) identify the accommodations, considering the characteristics of our solar system, that enabled manned space exploration.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that there is a relationship between organisms and the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe how different environments, including microhabitats in schoolyards and biomes, support different varieties of organisms;

(B) describe how biodiversity contributes to the sustainability of an ecosystem; and

(C) observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.

(11) Organisms and environments. The student knows that populations and species demonstrate variation and inherit many of their unique traits through gradual processes over many generations. The student is expected to:

(A) examine organisms or their structures such as insects or leaves and use dichotomous keys for identification;

(B) explain variation within a population or species by comparing external features, behaviors, or physiology of organisms that enhance their survival such as migration, hibernation, or storage of food in a bulb; and

(C) identify some changes in genetic traits that have occurred over several generations through natural selection and selective breeding such as the Galapagos Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) or domestic animals and hybrid plants.

(12) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and explain how internal structures of organisms have adaptations that allow specific functions such as gills in fish, hollow bones in birds, or xylem in plants;

(B) identify the main functions of the systems of the human organism, including the circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, digestive, excretory, reproductive, integumentary, nervous, and endocrine systems;

(C) recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms;

(D) differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole;

(E) compare the functions of [a] cell organelles to the functions of an organ system [organisms such as waste removal]; and

(F) recognize the components of [that according to] cell theory [all organisms are composed of cells and cells carry on similar functions such as extracting energy from food to sustain life].

(13) Organisms and environments. The student knows that a living organism must be able to maintain balance in stable internal conditions in response to external and internal stimuli. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how organisms respond to external stimuli found in the environment such as phototropism and fight or flight; and

(B) describe and relate responses in organisms that may result from internal stimuli such as wilting in plants and fever or vomiting in animals that allow them to maintain balance.

(14) Organisms and environments. The student knows that reproduction is a characteristic of living organisms and that the instructions for traits are governed in the genetic material. The student is expected to:

(A) define heredity as the passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next generation;

(B) compare the results of uniform or diverse offspring from asexual or sexual reproduction [or asexual reproduction]; and

(C) recognize that inherited traits of individuals are governed in the genetic material found in the genes within chromosomes in the nucleus.

§112.20.Science, Grade 8, Adopted 2017 [Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) Introduction.

[(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.]

[(2) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.]

(1) [(3)] Grade 8 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on earth and space science. National standards in science are organized as multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale.

[(4)] The strands for Grade 8 include the following.[:]

(A) Scientific investigation and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy. Students recognize that matter is composed of atoms. Students examine information on the Periodic Table to recognize that elements are grouped into families. In addition, students understand the basic concept of conservation of mass. Lab activities will allow students to demonstrate evidence of chemical reactions. They will use chemical formulas to identify [and balanced equations to show chemical reactions and the formation of new] substances.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Students experiment with the relationship between forces and motion through the study of Newton's three laws. Students learn how these forces relate to geologic processes and astronomical phenomena. In addition, students recognize that these laws are evident in everyday objects and activities. Mathematics is used to calculate speed using distance and time measurements.

(D) Earth and space. Students identify the role of natural events in altering Earth systems. Cycles within Sun, Earth, and Moon systems are studied as students learn about seasons, tides, and lunar phases. Students learn that stars and galaxies are part of the universe [and that distances in space are measured by using light waves]. In addition, students use data to research scientific theories of the origin of the universe. Students will illustrate how Earth features change over time by plate tectonics. They will interpret land and erosional features on topographic maps and satellite views. Students learn how interactions in solar, weather, and ocean systems create changes in weather patterns and climate.

(E) Organisms and environments. In studies of living systems, students explore the interdependence between these systems. [Interactions between organisms in ecosystems, including producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships, are investigated in aquatic and terrestrial systems.] Students describe how biotic and abiotic factors affect the number of organisms and populations present in an ecosystem. In addition, students explore how organisms and their populations respond to short- and long-term environmental changes, including those caused by human activities.

(2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards [the Texas Safety Standards]; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well defined [well-defined] questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement [comparative and] experimental investigations by making observations, asking well defined [well-defined] questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools [to collect, record, and analyze information], including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other necessary equipment to collect, record, and analyze information [as needed to teach the curriculum]; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter is composed of atoms and has chemical and physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud;

(B) identify that protons determine an element's identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity;

(C) interpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elements;

(D) recognize that chemical formulas are used to identify substances and determine the number of atoms of each element in chemical formulas containing subscripts; and

(E) investigate how evidence of chemical reactions indicates [indicate] that new substances with different properties are formed and how that relates to the law of conservation of mass.[; and]

[(F) recognize whether a chemical equation containing coefficients is balanced or not and how that relates to the law of conservation of mass.]

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that there is a relationship between force, motion, and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object's motion;

(B) differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration; and

(C) investigate and describe applications of Newton's three laws of motion [law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction] such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows the effects resulting from cyclical movements of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The student is expected to:

(A) model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun, causing changes in seasons;

(B) demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle; and

(C) relate the positions [position] of the Moon and Sun to their effect on ocean tides.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and use models such as the Herztsprung-Russell diagram for classification;

(B) recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star located in a spiral arm of the Milky Way [near the edge of a disc-shaped ] galaxy [of stars] and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star;

(C) identify [explore] how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as visible light and radio waves are used to gain information about [distances and properties of] components in the universe; and

[(D) model and describe how light years are used to measure distances and sizes in the universe; and]

(D) [(E)] research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories to describe the origin of the universe.

(9) Earth and space. The student knows that natural events can impact Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the historical development of evidence that supports plate tectonic theory;

(B) relate plate tectonics to the formation of crustal features; and

(C) interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and predict how these features may be reshaped by weathering.

(10) Earth and space. The student knows that climatic interactions exist among Earth, ocean, and weather systems. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that the Sun provides the energy that drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds [and ocean currents];

(B) identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather using weather maps that show high and low pressures and fronts; and

(C) identify the role of the oceans in the formation of weather systems such as hurricanes.

(11) Organisms and environments. The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems and the environment and that human activities can affect these systems. The student is expected to:

[(A) describe producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships as they occur in food webs within marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems;]

(A) [(B)] investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic factors such as food and abiotic factors such as quantity of light, water, range of temperatures, or soil composition;

(B) [(C)] explore how short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations; and

(C) [(D)] recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of resources have modified these systems.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700680

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §§112.31, 112.34, 112.35, 112.38, 112.39

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025, which requires the SBOE by rule to determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025.

§112.31.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School[, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011].

(a) The provisions of [§§112.32-112.39 of] this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts [beginning with the 2010-2011 school year].

(b) The provisions of §§112.34, 112.35, 112.38, and 112.39 of this subchapter adopted in 2017 shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2017-2018 school year.

§112.34.Biology[, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011] (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9, 10, or 11.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Biology. In Biology, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students in Biology study a variety of topics that include: structures and functions of cells and viruses; growth and development of organisms; cells, tissues, and organs; nucleic acids and genetics; biological evolution; taxonomy; metabolism and energy transfers in living organisms; living systems; homeostasis; and ecosystems and the environment.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5) Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(6) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that [which] have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established [well-established] and highly reliable [highly-reliable] explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F) collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as [calculators, spreadsheet software,] data-collecting probes, [computers,] standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, [electronic] balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettes [micropipettors], hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, [cameras,] Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures;

(G) analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(H) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) [in all fields of science,] analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing[, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations], so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, [news reports,] published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment;

(E) evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events; and

(F) research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and evaluate scientific explanations for their complexity;

(B) investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis and[, energy conversions,] transport of molecules[, and synthesis of new molecules]; and

(C) compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms;

[(B) examine specialized cells, including roots, stems, and leaves of plants; and animal cells such as blood, muscle, and epithelium;]

(B) [(C)] describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation; and

(C) [(D)] recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the mechanisms of genetics such as[, including] the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics [Genetics]. The student is expected to:

(A) identify components of DNA, [and] describe how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA, and evaluate scientific explanations for the origin of DNA;

(B) recognize that components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms;

(C) explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA;

(D) recognize that gene expression is a regulated process;

(E) identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes;

(F) predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance; and

(G) recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction.[; and]

[(H) describe how techniques such as DNA fingerprinting, genetic modifications, and chromosomal analysis are used to study the genomes of organisms.]

(7) Science concepts. The student knows evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies, including anatomical, molecular, and developmental;

(B) examine [analyze and evaluate] scientific explanations [concerning any data] of abrupt [sudden] appearance and[,] stasis[, and sequential nature of groups] in the fossil record;

(C) analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals;

(D) analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive success;

(E) analyze and evaluate the relationship of natural selection to adaptation and to the development of diversity in and among species; and

(F) analyze [and evaluate the effects of] other evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and recombination.[; and]

[(G) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations concerning the complexity of the cell.]

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that taxonomy is a branching classification based on the shared characteristics of organisms and can change as new discoveries are made. The student is expected to:

(A) define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standardized taxonomic system to the scientific community;

(B) categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences shared among groups; and

(C) compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the [structures and] functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;

(B) compare the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy, energy conversions, and matter; and

(C) identify and investigate the role of enzymes.[; and]

[(D) analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding formation of simple organic molecules and their organization into long complex molecules having information such as the DNA molecule for self-replicating life.]

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals;

(B) describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction, and response in plants; and

(C) analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance. The student is expected to:

[(A) describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis;]

[(B) investigate and analyze how organisms, populations, and communities respond to external factors;]

(A) [(C)] summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems; and

(B) [(D)] describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret relationships, including predation, parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, and competition, among organisms;

(B) compare variations and adaptations of organisms in different ecosystems;

(C) analyze the flow of matter and energy through trophic levels using various models, including food chains, food webs, and ecological pyramids;

[(D) recognize that long-term survival of species is dependent on changing resource bases that are limited;]

(D) [(E)] describe the flow of matter through the carbon and nitrogen cycles and explain the consequences of disrupting these cycles; and

(E) [(F)] describe how environmental change can impact ecosystem stability.

§112.35.Chemistry[, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011] (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Required prerequisites: one unit of high school science and Algebra I. Suggested prerequisite: completion of or concurrent enrollment in a second year of mathematics [math]. This course is recommended for students in Grade 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Chemistry. In Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include characteristics of matter, use of the Periodic Table, development of atomic theory and chemical bonding, chemical stoichiometry, gas laws, solution chemistry, thermochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Students will investigate how chemistry is an integral part of our daily lives.

(2) Nature of science [Science]. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(6) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers;

(B) know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the [Material] Safety Data Sheets (SDS) [(MSDS)]; and

(C) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that [which] have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established [well-established] and highly reliable [highly-reliable] explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, electronic balances, an adequate supply of consumable chemicals, and sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, [safety goggles,] and burettes[, electronic balances, and an adequate supply of consumable chemicals];

(F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;

(G) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;

(H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(I) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) [in all fields of science,] analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing[, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student];

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, [news reports,] published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe the connection between chemistry and future careers; and

(F) [research and] describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties;

(B) identify extensive properties such as mass and volume and intensive properties such as density and melting point;

(C) compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of compressibility, structure, shape, and volume; and

(D) classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.

(5) Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the Periodic Table and can apply its predictive power. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table;

(B) [use the Periodic Table to] identify and explain the properties of chemical families, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals, using the Periodic Table; and

(C) interpret [use the Periodic Table to identify and explain] periodic trends, including atomic radius [and ionic radii], electronegativity, and ionization energy, using the Periodic Table.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The student is expected to:

(A) describe [understand] the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory, including Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, and Bohr's nuclear atom;

(B) describe [understand the electromagnetic spectrum and] the mathematical relationships between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light using the electromagnetic spectrum;

[(C) calculate the wavelength, frequency, and energy of light using Planck's constant and the speed of light;]

(C) [(D)] [use isotopic composition to] calculate average atomic mass of an element using isotopic composition; and

(D) [(E)] express the arrangement of electrons in atoms of representative elements using [through ] electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form ionic, covalent, and metallic[, and covalent] bonds. The student is expected to:

(A) name ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases[,] using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature rules;

(B) write the chemical formulas of [common polyatomic ions,] ionic compounds containing representative elements, [main group or] transition metals and common polyatomic ions, covalent compounds, and acids[,] and bases;

(C) construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bonds;

(D) describe [the nature of] metallic bonding and [apply the theory to] explain metallic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility; and

(E) classify [predict] molecular structure for molecules with linear, trigonal planar, and [or] tetrahedral electron pair geometries as explained by [using] Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.

(8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) define and use the concept of a mole;

(B) [use the mole concept to] calculate the number of atoms[, ions,] or molecules in a sample of material using Avogadro's number;

(C) calculate percent composition of compounds [and empirical and molecular formulas];

(D) differentiate between empirical and molecular formulas;

(E) [(D)] [use the law of conservation of mass to] write and balance chemical equations using the law of conservation of mass; [and]

(F) differentiate among double replacement (ion-swap) reactions, including acid-base reactions and precipitation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions such as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, and combustion reactions;

(G) [(E)] perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass and gas volume relationships between reactants and products [, calculation of limiting reagents,] and percent yield; and[.]

(H) describe the concept of limiting reactants in a balanced chemical equation.

(9) Science concepts. The student understands the principles of ideal gas behavior, kinetic molecular theory, and the conditions that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and calculate the relations between volume, pressure, number of moles, and temperature for an ideal gas as described by Boyle's law, Charles' law, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure, and the ideal gas law; and

[(B) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass and volume relationships between reactants and products for reactions involving gases; and]

(B) [(C)] describe the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.

(10) Science concepts. The student understands and can apply the factors that influence the behavior of solutions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the unique role of water in solutions in terms of polarity [chemical and biological systems];

(B) apply the [develop and use] general rules regarding solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions;

(C) calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity;

(D) [use molarity to] calculate the dilutions of solutions using molarity;

(E) distinguish among [between] types of solutions such as electrolytes and nonelectrolytes; [and] unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions; and strong and weak acids and bases;

(F) investigate factors that influence solid and gas solubilities and rates of dissolution such as temperature, agitation, and surface area;

(G) define acids and bases and distinguish between Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry definitions and predict products in acid-base [acid base] reactions that form water; and

(H) understand and differentiate among acid-base reactions, precipitation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions;]

(H) [(I)] define pH and [use the hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentrations to] calculate the pH of a solution using the hydrogen ion concentration.[; and]

[(J) distinguish between degrees of dissociation for strong and weak acids and bases.]

(11) Science concepts. The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe [understand] energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal energies;

(B) describe [understand] the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer in terms of calorimetry;

(C) classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic and represent energy changes that occur in chemical reactions using [use] thermochemical equations or graphical analysis [to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic]; and

(D) perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat.[; and]

[(E) use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process.]

(12) Science concepts. The student understands the basic processes of nuclear chemistry. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radioactive decay processes in terms of balanced nuclear equations [radiation]; and

[(B) describe radioactive decay process in terms of balanced nuclear equations; and]

(B) [(C)] compare fission and fusion reactions.

§112.38.Integrated Physics and Chemistry[, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011] (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9 or 10.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Integrated Physics and Chemistry. In Integrated Physics and Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigation, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. This course integrates the disciplines of physics and chemistry in the following topics: force, motion, energy, and matter.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5) Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(6) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, and fire extinguishers; [and]

(B) know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Safety Data Sheets (SDS); and

(C) [(B)] demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(C) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;

(D) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(E) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) [in all fields of science,] analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing[, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student];

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, [news reports,] published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe connections between physics and chemistry and future careers; and

(F) research and describe the history of physics and chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and calculate an object's motion in terms of position, displacement, speed, and acceleration;

(B) measure and graph distance and speed as a function of time [using moving toys];

(C) investigate how an object's motion changes only when a net force is applied, including activities and equipment such as toy cars, vehicle restraints, sports activities, and classroom objects;

(D) describe and calculate [assess] the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration[, noting the relationship is independent of the nature of the force,] using equipment such as dynamic carts, moving toys, vehicles, and falling objects;

(E) explain [apply] the concept of conservation of momentum using action and reaction forces [such as students on skateboards];

(F) describe the gravitational attraction between objects of different masses at different distances[, including satellites]; and

(G) examine electrical force as a universal force between any two charged objects [and compare the relative strength of the electrical force and gravitational force].

(5) Science concepts. The student recognizes multiple forms of energy and knows the impact of energy transfer and energy conservation in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and demonstrate that objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy such as vibration of atoms, water flowing down a stream moving pebbles, and bowling balls knocking down pins;

(B) recognize and demonstrate common forms of potential energy, including gravitational, elastic, and chemical, such as a ball on an inclined plane, springs, and batteries;

(C) demonstrate that moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces;

(D) investigate the law of conservation of energy;

(E) investigate and demonstrate the movement of thermal energy through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation such as in weather, living, and mechanical systems;

(F) evaluate the transfer of electrical energy in series and parallel circuits and conductive materials;

(G) explore the characteristics and behaviors of energy transferred by waves, including acoustic, seismic, light, and waves on water, as they reflect, refract, diffract, interfere with [superpose on] one another, and [bend around corners, reflect off surfaces,] are absorbed by materials[, and change direction when entering new materials];

(H) analyze energy transformations of renewable and nonrenewable resources [conversions such as those from radiant, nuclear, and geothermal sources; fossil fuels such as coal, gas, oil; and the movement of water or wind]; and

(I) critique the advantages and disadvantages of various energy sources and their impact on society and the environment.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that relationships exist between the structure and properties of matter. The student is expected to:

(A) examine differences in physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases as explained by the arrangement and motion of atoms[, ions,] or molecules [of the substances and the strength of the forces of attraction between those particles];

(B) relate chemical properties of substances to the arrangement of their atoms [or molecules];

(C) analyze physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds such as color, density, viscosity, buoyancy, boiling point, freezing point, conductivity, and reactivity;

(D) relate the placement of an element on the Periodic Table to its physical and chemical behavior [of an element], including bonding and classification[, to its placement on the Periodic Table]; [and]

(E) relate the structure of water to its function as a solvent; and [and investigate the properties of solutions and factors affecting gas and solid solubility, including nature of solute, temperature, pressure, pH, and concentration.]

(F) investigate the properties of water solutions and factors affecting solid solubility, including nature of solute, temperature, and concentration.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate changes of state as it relates to the arrangement of particles of matter and energy transfer;

(B) recognize that chemical changes can occur when substances react to form different substances and that these interactions are largely determined by the valence electrons;

(C) demonstrate that mass is conserved when substances undergo chemical change and that the number and kind of atoms are the same in the reactants and products;

(D) classify [analyze] energy changes that accompany chemical reactions such as those occurring in heat packs, cold packs, and glow sticks [and classify them] as exothermic or endothermic reactions;

(E) describe types of nuclear reactions such as fission and fusion and their roles in applications such as medicine and energy production; and

(F) research and describe the environmental and economic impact of the end-products of chemical reactions such as those that may result in acid rain, degradation of water and air quality, and ozone depletion.

§112.39.Physics[, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011] (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Algebra I is suggested as a prerequisite or corequisite [co-requisite]. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9, 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Physics. In Physics, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: laws of motion; changes within physical systems and conservation of energy and momentum; forces; thermodynamics; characteristics and behavior of waves; and atomic, nuclear, and quantum physics. Students who successfully complete Physics will acquire factual knowledge within a conceptual framework, practice experimental design and interpretation, work collaboratively with colleagues, and develop critical-thinking [critical thinking] skills.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable by empirical science.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(6) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment [,] but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence[. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories];

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established [well-established] and highly reliable [highly-reliable] explanations, but may be subject to change [as new areas of science and new technologies are developed];

[(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;]

(D) [(E)] design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well defined [well-defined] questions, formulating testable, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, [and] evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness, and identifying causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data;

(E) [(F)] demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), [triple beam] balances, batteries, [clamps,] dynamics demonstration equipment, collision apparatus, [data acquisition probes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), hand-held visual spectroscopes, hot plates, slotted and hooked] lab masses, [bar] magnets, [horseshoe magnets,] plane mirrors, convex lenses, [pendulum support, power supply, ring clamps, ring stands,] stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, [tuning forks, carbon paper,] graph paper, magnetic compasses, [polarized film, prisms,] protractors, [resistors, friction blocks, mini lamps (bulbs) and sockets, electrostatics kits, 90-degree rod clamps,] metric rulers, spring scales, [knife blade switches, Celsius] thermometers, [meter sticks, scientific calculators, graphing technology, computers, cathode ray tubes with horseshoe magnets, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tubes, spools of nylon thread or string, containers of iron filings, rolls of white craft paper, copper wire, Periodic Table, electromagnetic spectrum charts,] slinky springs, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results [wave motion ropes, and laser pointers];

(F) [(G)] use a wide variety of additional course apparatus, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as ripple tank with wave generator, wave motion rope, tuning forks, hand-held visual spectroscopes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), electromagnetic spectrum charts, laser pointers, micrometer, caliper, [radiation monitor,] computer, data acquisition probes, scientific calculators, graphing technology, electrostatic kits, [ballistic pendulum,] electroscope, inclined plane, optics bench, optics kit, polarized film, prisms, pulley with table clamp, motion detectors, photogates, friction blocks, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tube, [ring stand screen, four inch ring,] stroboscope, resistors, copper wire, switches, iron filings, and/or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results [graduated cylinders, and ticker timer];

(G) [(H)] make measurements with accuracy and precision and record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) units;

[(I) identify and quantify causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data;]

(H) [(J)] organize, [and] evaluate, [data] and make inferences from data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs;

(I) [(K)] communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through various methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports; and

(J) [(L)] express [and manipulate ] relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) [in all fields of science,] analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing[, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student];

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

[(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;]

(C) [(D)] explain the impacts of the scientific contributions of a variety of historical and contemporary scientists on scientific thought and society;

(D) [(E)] research and describe the connections between physics and future careers; and

(E) [(F)] express, manipulate, and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically[, including problems requiring proportional reasoning and graphical vector addition].

(4) Science concepts. The student knows and applies the laws governing motion in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and interpret graphs and charts describing different types of motion, including investigations using [the use of] real-time technology such as motion detectors or photogates;

(B) describe and analyze motion in one dimension using equations and graphical vector addition with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, frames of reference, and acceleration;

(C) analyze and describe accelerated motion in two dimensions, including using equations, graphical vector addition, and [including] projectile and circular examples; and

(D) calculate the effect of forces on objects, including the law of inertia, the relationship between force and acceleration, and the nature of force pairs between objects using methods, including free-body force diagrams.[;]

[(E) develop and interpret free-body force diagrams; and]

[(F) identify and describe motion relative to different frames of reference.]

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the nature of forces in the physical world. The student is expected to:

(A) [research and] describe the [historical development of the] concepts of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces;

(B) describe and calculate how the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their masses and the distance between their centers;

(C) describe and calculate how the magnitude of the electric [electrical] force between two objects depends on their charges and the distance between their centers [them];

(D) identify and describe examples of electric and magnetic forces and fields in everyday life such as generators, motors, and transformers;

(E) characterize materials as conductors or insulators based on their electric [electrical] properties; and

(F) investigate [design, construct,] and calculate [in terms of] current through, potential difference across, resistance of, and power used by electric circuit elements connected in both series and parallel combinations.[;]

[(G) investigate and describe the relationship between electric and magnetic fields in applications such as generators, motors, and transformers; and]

[(H) describe evidence for and effects of the strong and weak nuclear forces in nature.]

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and applies the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and calculate quantities using the work-energy theorem in various situations;

(B) investigate examples of kinetic and potential energy and their transformations;

(C) calculate the mechanical energy of, power generated within, impulse applied to, and momentum of a physical system;

(D) demonstrate and apply the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum in one dimension; and

[(E) describe how the macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system such as temperature, specific heat, and pressure are related to the molecular level of matter, including kinetic or potential energy of atoms;]

[(F) contrast and give examples of different processes of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation; and]

(E) [(G)] [analyze and] explain everyday examples that illustrate the four laws of thermodynamics and the processes of thermal energy transfer[, including the law of conservation of energy and the law of entropy].

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves. The student is expected to:

(A) examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave propagation in various types of media;

(B) investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and calculate using the relationship between wavespeed, frequency, and wavelength;

(C) compare characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum, and characteristics and behaviors of longitudinal waves, including sound waves;

(D) investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance, and the Doppler effect; and

(E) describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens.[; and]

(F) describe the role of wave characteristics and behaviors in medical and industrial applications.]

(8) Science concepts. The student knows simple examples of atomic, nuclear, and quantum phenomena. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the photoelectric effect and the dual nature of light;

(B) compare and explain the emission spectra produced by various atoms;

(C) calculate and describe the applications [significance] of mass-energy equivalence [and apply it in explanations of phenomena such as nuclear stability, fission, and fusion]; and

(D) give examples of applications of atomic and nuclear phenomena using the standard model such as nuclear stability, fission and fusion, radiation therapy, diagnostic imaging, semiconductors, superconductors, solar cells, and nuclear power and examples of applications of quantum phenomena [such as digital cameras].

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700681

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 114. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR LANGUAGES OTHER THAN ENGLISH

SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §114.53

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes new §114.53, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for languages other than English (LOTE). The proposed new section would implement House Bill (HB) 1431, 84th Texas Legislature, 2015, which requires the SBOE to develop an advanced LOTE course that prepares students to communicate in a language other than English in a specific professional, business, or industry environment.

HB 1431, 84th Texas Legislature, 2015, added Texas Education Code, §28.002(t), to require that the SBOE, in consultation with the commissioner of higher education and business and industry leaders, develop an advanced language course that a school district may use to provide students with instruction in industry-related terminology that prepares students to communicate in a language other than English in a specific professional, business, or industry environment. In August 2016, a committee of secondary and postsecondary educators and business and industry representatives was selected to develop recommended TEKS for the advanced career-oriented LOTE course.

The course development committee convened for the first face-to-face meeting in Austin in October 2016 to begin working on recommendations for the TEKS. The committee participated in additional virtual meetings to finalize its initial draft recommendations, which were presented to the Committee on Instruction for discussion at the November 2016 meeting. Following the November 2016 SBOE meeting, a draft of the proposed TEKS was shared with the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and representatives from the business and industry community for feedback. The course development committee convened again for a virtual meeting in December 2016 to finalize its recommendations.

The SBOE approved the proposed new section for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017 meeting.

The proposed new section would have no new procedural and reporting requirements.

The proposed new section would have no new locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and support services, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed new section is in effect there will be fiscal implications for the state. Implications for the TEA in fiscal year 2017 include reimbursing committee members for travel to develop TEKS for the new course. There are also implications for the TEA if the state develops professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the new course. For fiscal year 2017, the estimated cost to the TEA for the development of the new career-oriented language course is $2,500. Any professional development that is created would be based on whether the TEA receives an appropriation for professional development in the next biennium. The TEA does not anticipate any implications for the state beyond fiscal year 2017.

There may be fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools that choose to implement the new course. These may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed new section is in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed new section is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the new section will be a new career-oriented LOTE course option for students. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed new section.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. A request for a public hearing on the proposed amendment submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new section is proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002(t), which requires the SBOE, in consultation with the commissioner of higher education and business and industry leaders, to develop an advanced language course that a school district may use to provide students with instruction in industry-related terminology that prepares students to communicate in a language other than English in a specific professional, business, or industry environment.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new section implements the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(t).

§114.53.Advanced Language for Career Applications (One Credit).

(a) General requirements.

(1) Advanced Language for Career Applications may be offered in high school. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Successful completion of Level III, achieving an Intermediate Low to Intermediate Mid proficiency level, or demonstrated equivalent proficiency as determined by the district is a prerequisite for this course.

(2) Districts may offer this course in a variety of scheduling arrangements that may extend or reduce the traditional schedule when careful consideration is given to the instructional time available on a campus and the language ability, access to programs, and motivation of students.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The study of world languages is an essential part of education. In the 21st century language classroom, students gain an understanding of two basic aspects of human existence: the nature of communication and the complexity of culture.

(2) The Advanced Language for Career Applications course provides students with instruction in terminology that prepares students to communicate in a language other than English in a professional, business, or industry setting.

(3) Communication is the overarching goal of world language instruction. Students should be provided ample opportunities to engage in conversations, to present information to an audience, and to interpret culturally authentic materials in the language of study. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) identifies three modes of communication: interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational.

(A) In the interpersonal mode of communication, students engage in direct oral or written communication with others. Examples of this "two-way" communication include but are not limited to conversing face to face, participating in digital discussions and messaging, and exchanging personal letters.

(B) In the interpretive mode of communication, students demonstrate understanding of spoken and written communication within appropriate cultural contexts. Examples of this type of "one-way" reading or listening include but are not limited to comprehension of digital texts as well as print, audio, and audiovisual materials.

(C) In the presentational mode of communication, students present orally or in writing information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers with whom there is no immediate interaction. Examples of this "one-to-many" mode of communication include but are not limited to presenting to a group; creating and posting digital content; or writing reports, compositions, or articles for a magazine or newspaper.

(4) The use of age-level appropriate and industry-specific authentic resources is imperative to support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills for languages other than English (LOTE). The use of authentic resources enables students to increase their academic vocabulary and to participate in local and global communities.

(5) Students recognize the importance of acquiring accuracy of expression by knowing the components of language, including grammar, syntax, register (formal or informal language use), appropriate discourse level, and text type.

(6) Students in Advanced Language for Career Applications are expected to reach a proficiency level of Intermediate Mid to Intermediate High, as defined in the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines 2012 and the ACTFL Performance Descriptors for Language Learners.

(A) Students at the Intermediate Mid proficiency level express meaning in straightforward and personal contexts by easily combining and recombining what they know, what they read, and what they hear in short statements and a mixture of sentences and strings of sentences. Intermediate Mid students are able to understand some information from connected statements in oral or written sources. Intermediate Mid students are generally understood by sympathetic listeners and readers accustomed to dealing with language learners. Intermediate Mid students are consistently successful when performing Intermediate-level tasks.

(B) Students at the Intermediate High proficiency level express meaning in a variety of contexts by creating with the language, easily combining and recombining what they know, what they read, and what they hear in a mixture of sentences and connected discourse. Intermediate High students are able to understand information from connected statements in oral or written sources. Intermediate High students are generally understood by listeners and readers unaccustomed to dealing with language learners. Intermediate High students are consistently successful when performing Intermediate-level tasks. Intermediate High students show evidence of Advanced Low proficiency but lack consistency.

(7) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Interpersonal communication: speaking and writing. The student negotiates meaning through the spoken and written exchange of information in rehearsed and unrehearsed situations in a variety of contexts appropriate to the professional, business, or industry setting. The student uses a mixture of sentences and connected discourse with appropriate and applicable grammar structures and processes. The student is expected to:

(A) use professional etiquette and protocol such as making introductions, speaking on the telephone, and offering and receiving feedback appropriate to the professional, business, or industry setting;

(B) participate appropriately in conversations and in informal written exchanges related to the professional, business, or industry setting;

(C) identify and use appropriate strategies for communicating with diverse individuals;

(D) evaluate the effectiveness of one's own and others' communication;

(E) give and receive complex oral instructions to perform tasks specific to the professional, business, or industry setting;

(F) interact and react in spoken conversation using culturally appropriate expressions, register, and gestures; and

(G) interact and react in writing using culturally appropriate expressions, register, and style.

(2) Interpretive communication: reading and listening. The student comprehends connected statements appropriate to the professional, business, or industry setting from culturally authentic print, digital, audio, and audiovisual materials. The student uses the interpretive mode in communication with appropriate and applicable grammatical structures and processes. The student is expected to:

(A) employ appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening comprehension skills to enhance relationships in the professional, business, or industry setting;

(B) paraphrase the main idea and supporting details from professional, business, or industry-related texts, audio, and audiovisual materials;

(C) compare and contrast practices and perspectives related to the professional, business, or industry setting from authentic print, digital, audio, and audiovisual materials;

(D) use prior knowledge and experiences to understand and interpret meanings in oral and written print, digital, audio, and audiovisual materials appropriate to the professional, business, or industry setting;

(E) apply data to evaluate performance or provide solutions to problems specific to the professional, business, or industry setting; and

(F) understand and follow directives and procedures within the context of the professional, business, or industry setting.

(3) Presentational communication: speaking and writing. The student presents business or industry-related information orally and in writing using a mixture of sentences and connected discourse with appropriate and applicable grammar structures and processes. The student is expected to:

(A) apply the spoken and written conventions and mechanics of the target language;

(B) present analyzed data and communicate findings in a variety of formats specific to the professional, business, or industry setting;

(C) design and present an effective professional, business, or industry-related product using appropriate register for the audience, occasion, and purpose; and

(D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of professional, business, or industry-related information to inform, persuade, or motivate an audience.

(4) Professional, business, or industry-specific terminology. The student effectively communicates using the target language in rehearsed and unrehearsed situations using professional, business, or industry-specific terminology. The student is expected to:

(A) use various strategies to infer the meaning of unfamiliar words or phrases in business or industry-specific texts, audio, and audiovisual materials such as trade publications, case studies, business journals, or conference presentations;

(B) apply newly acquired basic and academic language related to the professional, business, or industry setting in meaningful ways that build concepts and language implementation;

(C) demonstrate an understanding of different dialects used in communities served by the profession, business, or industry; and

(D) communicate using advanced technical vocabulary, jargon, and abbreviations necessary for communicating with employers, clients, and other professionals in the target language.

(5) Career applications. The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required in the professional, business, or industry setting. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate appropriate communication for employers, clients, and coworkers in the target language through verbal, nonverbal, and digital means;

(B) demonstrate professional etiquette appropriate to the professional, business, or industry setting;

(C) demonstrate an understanding of relevant ethical and legal issues such as confidentiality and fiduciary responsibility;

(D) communicate effectively in the target language in career development activities such as mock interviews;

(E) set goals and reflect on progress in using the target language for career development and advancement; and

(F) adhere to ethical codes of conduct by following copyright laws and restrictions and using technology responsibly.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700682

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 115. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR HEALTH EDUCATION

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes amendments to §§115.22, 115.23, 115.32, and 115.33, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for health education. The proposed amendments would add student expectations for prescription drug awareness to the health education TEKS in accordance with Senate Bill (SB) 968, 84th Texas Legislature, 2015.

SB 968, 84th Texas Legislature, 2015, added the Texas Education Code, §28.002(w), to require that the SBOE adopt TEKS that address the dangers, causes, consequences, signs, symptoms, and treatment of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Recommendations for amendments to add student expectations for prescription drug awareness to the health education TEKS were provided to the committee for discussion at the November 2016 meeting. The draft recommendations were also shared with state health organizations and stakeholders for review and feedback.

The SBOE approved the proposed amendments for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017 meeting.

The proposed amendments would have no new procedural and reporting implications.

The proposed amendments would have no new locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and support services, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed amendments are in effect there will be no additional costs to the state. There are anticipated fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools to implement the proposed amendments. These may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed amendments are in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed amendments are in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the amendments will be student access to additional information regarding prescription drug awareness as a part of the health education curriculum. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed amendments.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. A request for a public hearing on the proposed amendment submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register.

SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §115.22, §115.23

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(c), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.002(w), which requires the SBOE to adopt essential knowledge and skills that address the dangers, causes, consequences, signs, symptoms, and treatment of nonmedical use of prescription drugs.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(c) and (w).

§115.22.Health Education, Grade 6.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In health education, students acquire the health information and skills necessary to become healthy adults and learn about behaviors in which they should and should not participate. To achieve that goal, students will understand the following: students should first seek guidance in the area of health from their parents; personal behaviors can increase or reduce health risks throughout the lifespan; health is influenced by a variety of factors; students can recognize and utilize health information and products; and personal/interpersonal skills are needed to promote individual, family, and community health.

(2) In middle school, students learn about health behaviors that will safeguard their health as well as information related to understanding puberty and the reproductive process. Students are taught about factors in their environment that impact, not only their health and the health of their families, but the health of their communities as well. Middle school students learn to refine their critical-thinking skills to avoid unsafe situations, analyze health information and products, and maintain healthy relationships. Students begin to investigate health in the broader context of community.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Health information. The student comprehends ways to enhance and maintain personal health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze healthy and unhealthy dietary practices;

(B) explain the importance of a personal dietary and exercise plan;

(C) compare immediate and long-range effects of personal health care choices such as personal and dental hygiene;

(D) identify causes and effects [affects] associated with poor body image such as eating disorders and growth patterns;

(E) examine the concept of cost versus effectiveness of health care [health-care] products;

(F) describe the mental, physical, and social benefits of regular exercise and fitness;

(G) describe the importance of establishing and implementing a periodic health-maintenance clinical assessment; and

(H) demonstrate strategies for managing stress.

(2) Health information. The student recognizes ways that body structure and function relate to personal health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the relationships among the body systems;

(B) describe changes in male and female anatomy and physiology during puberty;

(C) analyze the role of hormones as they relate to growth and development and personal health; and

(D) describe menstrual health and identify the relationship to reproduction.

(3) Health information. The student comprehends and utilizes concepts relating to health promotion and disease prevention. The student is expected to:

(A) describe various modes of disease transmission;

(B) compare healthy cell growth to cell growth in the disease process; and

(C) list noncommunicable and hereditary diseases and respective prevention and treatment techniques.

(4) Health information. The student comprehends ways of researching, accessing, and analyzing health information. The student is expected to:

(A) list ways to evaluate health products, practices, and services such as sunblocks, dietary aides, and over-the-counter medications; and

(B) use critical thinking to research and evaluate health information.

(5) Health information. The student comprehends general health information related to prescription and over-the-counter drugs. The student is expected to:

(A) define prescription and over-the-counter drugs;

(B) describe the purposes of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including the intended benefits;

(C) explain why some drugs require a prescription;

(D) identify the components of prescription and over-the-counter drug labels;

(E) compare and contrast examples of prescription and over-the-counter drug labels;

(F) identify and describe practices used to safely store and properly dispose of prescription and over-the-counter drugs; and

(G) explain the dangers associated with taking expired prescription and over-the-counter drugs.

(6) Health information. The student comprehends ways of applying health information related to prescription and over-the-counter drugs to reduce health risks to the body functions and organs for a life span. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the difference between the misuse and abuse of prescription drugs;

(B) describe the misuse and abuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs and the dangers associated with each; and

(C) describe how the abuse of drugs affects the body systems and brain.

(7) [(5)] Health behaviors. The student engages in behaviors that reduce health risks throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate an understanding of basic first-aid procedures;

[(A) analyze the use and abuse of prescriptions and non-prescription medications such as over-the-counter;]

[(B) examine social influences on drug-taking behaviors;]

(B) [(C)] describe chemical dependency and addiction to tobacco, alcohol, [and other] drugs, including prescription drugs, and other substances;

(C) [(D)] explain the relationship among [between] tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other substances and the role these items play in unsafe situations such as drinking and driving and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease [Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Sexually Transmitted Disease] (STD) transmission;

(D) [(E)] identify ways such as alternative activities to prevent the use of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other substances [such as alternative activities];

(E) identify ways to prevent substance misuse, including the misuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, and substance use disorders;

[(F) demonstrate an understanding of basic first-aid procedures;]

(F) [(G)] demonstrate strategies for the prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries such as using conflict resolution skills instead of fighting and wearing a seat belt;

(G) [(H)] identify and describe strategies for avoiding drugs, violence, gangs, weapons, and other harmful situations; [and]

(H) [(I)] explain the consequences of sexual activity and the benefits of abstinence; and [.]

(I) identify signs and symptoms of prescription drug misuse such as using medicine prescribed for someone else or for reasons other than its intended use.

(8) [(6)] Influencing factors. The student understands how factors in the environment influence individual and community health. The student is expected to:

(A) identify how environmental influences may affect an individual's substance misuse and substance use disorder;

(B) [(A)] identify factors that affect an individual's physical, emotional, and social health such as school climate and safety measures; and

(C) [(B)] make healthy choices from among environmental alternatives such as leaving a smoke-filled room or selecting healthy snacks from vending machines.

(9) [(7)] Influencing factors. The student recognizes how relationships influence individual health behaviors including skills necessary for building and maintaining relationships. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between positive and negative relationships that can affect individual health such as clubs, gangs, or families;

(B) examine social influences on drug-taking behaviors;

(C) [(B)] explain ways of maintaining healthy relationships such as resisting peer pressure to engage in unsafe behavior;

(D) [(C)] practice conflict resolution/mediation skills;

(E) [(D)] describe strategies such as abstinence for communicating refusal to engage in unsafe behaviors; and

(F) [(E)] describe methods for communicating important issues with parents and peers.

(10) [(8)] Influencing factors. The student comprehends how media and technology influence individual and community health. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ways in which media and technology influence social norms such as using prescription and over-the-counter drugs;

(B) [(A)] identify and analyze various media and technologies that influence individual and community health such as computer software and the internet [World Wide Web]; and

(C) [(B)] explain the relationship between health needs and technology development such as the development of an HIV [a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)] vaccine.

(11) [(9)] Influencing factors. The student differentiates between positive and negative family influences. The student is expected to:

(A) develop strategies for supporting and respecting all family members; and

(B) identify strategies for coping with unhealthy behaviors in the family such as abuse, alcoholism, and neglect.

(12) [(10)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student describes healthy and respectful ways to communicate consideration and respect for self, family, friends, and others. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate ways to communicate empathy to others and have consideration for others;

(B) assess healthy ways of responding to disrespectful behaviors such as mediation;

(C) practice methods for self-control;

(D) describe healthy ways to express affection and love;

(E) describe ways to manage anxiety and grief;

(F) describe ways to control anger and emotions when responding to others;

(G) demonstrate strategies for showing respect for individual differences such as race, physical appearance, and socio-economic status;

(H) define stress and its effects on individual health and relationships; and

(I) identify stressors and their impact on the health of the individual and family.

(13) [(11)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student analyzes information and applies critical-thinking, decision-making, goal-setting, and problem-solving skills for making health-promoting decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) seek the input of parents and other trusted adults in problem solving and goal setting;

(B) demonstrate the use of refusal skills in unsafe situations;

(C) explain the impact of peer pressure on decision making;

(D) compare the risks and benefits of various health behaviors such as choosing not to smoke; [and]

(E) identify the possible health implications of long-term personal and vocational goals; and[.]

(F) identify decision-making practices such as refusing invitations, knowing the risks of substance abuse, and reporting the abuse to a parent school administrator, teacher, or other trusted adult that reduce unsafe health behaviors.

(14) [(12)] Bullying prevention. The student engages in behaviors that reduce the risk of bullying throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the impact that bullying has on both victims and bullies;

(B) identify strategies for prevention and intervention of all forms of bullying such as emotional, physical, social, and sexual;

(C) describe healthy ways to be assertive without being aggressive; and

(D) assess healthy and appropriate ways of responding to bullying.

§115.23.Health Education, Grades 7-8.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In health education, students acquire the health information and skills necessary to become healthy adults and learn about behaviors in which they should and should not participate. To achieve that goal, students will understand the following: students should first seek guidance in the area of health from their parents; personal behaviors can increase or reduce health risks throughout the lifespan; health is influenced by a variety of factors; students can recognize and utilize health information and products; and personal/interpersonal skills are needed to promote individual, family, and community health.

(2) In middle school, students learn about health behaviors that will safeguard their health as well as information related to understanding puberty and the reproductive process. Students are taught about factors in their environment that impact, not only their health and the health of their families, but the health of their communities as well. Middle school students learn to refine their critical-thinking skills to avoid unsafe situations, analyze health information and products, and maintain healthy relationships. Students begin to investigate health in the broader context of community.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Health information. The student comprehends ways to enhance and maintain personal health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health;

(B) identify and describe types of eating disorders such as bulimia, anorexia, or overeating;

(C) identify and describe lifetime strategies for prevention and early identification of disorders such as depression and anxiety that may lead to long-term disability; [and]

(D) describe the life cycle of human beings including birth, dying, and death;[.]

(E) identify and describe the three categories of prescription drugs and types of illegal drugs; and

(F) examine the relationship between prescription drugs and illegal drugs.

(2) Health information. The student recognizes ways that body structure and function relate to personal health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how differences in growth patterns among adolescents such as onset of puberty may affect personal health;

(B) describe the influence of the endocrine system on growth and development;

(C) compare and contrast changes in males and females;

(D) describe physiological and emotional changes that occur during pregnancy; [and]

(E) examine physical and emotional development during adolescence; and[.]

(F) identify the common side effects associated with each drug category on the body systems and brain.

(3) Health information. The student comprehends and utilizes concepts relating to health promotion and disease prevention throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the role of preventive health measures, immunizations, and treatment in disease prevention such as wellness exams and dental check-ups;

(B) analyze risks for contracting specific diseases based on pathogenic, genetic, age, cultural, environmental, and behavioral factors;

(C) distinguish risk factors associated with communicable and noncommunicable diseases; and

(D) summarize the facts related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

(4) Health information. The student knows how to research, access, analyze, and use health information. The student is expected to:

(A) use critical thinking to analyze and use health information such as interpreting media messages;

(B) develop evaluation criteria for health information;

(C) demonstrate ways to use health information to help self and others; [and]

(D) discuss the legal implications regarding sexual activity as it relates to minor persons;[.]

(E) identify and explain the importance of each component of an over-the-counter drug warning label;

(F) identify common uses of each prescription drug category;

(G) compare and contrast examples of various packaging and forms of medicines, including prescription drugs; and

(H) discuss the legal consequences related to the use of drugs, including the misuse of prescription drugs.

(5) Health information. The student comprehends ways of applying health information related to prescription and over-the-counter drugs to reduce health risks to the body systems and functions for a life span. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the short- and long-term health consequences of prescription and over-the-counter drug misuse and substance use disorders;

(B) describe how substance misuse, including prescription drug misuse, and substance use disorders affect the body systems and brain; and

(C) relate medicine and other drugs to communicable and noncommunicable disease, prenatal health, health problems in later life, and other adverse consequences.

(6) [(5)] Health behaviors. The student engages in behaviors that reduce health risks throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and demonstrate strategies for preventing and responding to deliberate and accidental injuries;

(B) describe the dangers associated with a variety of weapons;

(C) identify strategies for prevention and intervention of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse;

(D) identify information relating to abstinence;

(E) analyze the importance of abstinence from sexual activity as the preferred choice of behavior in relationship to all sexual activity for unmarried persons of school age;

(F) discuss abstinence from sexual activity as the only method that is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy, STDs [sexually transmitted diseases], and the sexual transmission of HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and the emotional trauma associated with adolescent sexual activity;

(G) demonstrate basic first-aid procedures including cardiopulmonary resuscitation [Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation] (CPR) and the choking rescue;

(H) explain the impact of chemical dependency and addiction to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, including prescription drugs, and other substances;

(I) identify and discuss efforts to prevent substance abuse, including prescription drug use, in the community;

[(I) relate medicine and other drug use to communicable disease, prenatal health, health problems in later life, and other adverse consequences;]

[(J) identify ways to prevent the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs such as alternative activities;]

(J) [(K)] apply strategies for avoiding violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs; [and]

(K) [(L)] explain the importance of complying with rules prohibiting possession of drugs and weapons; [.]

(L) differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate use of prescription and over-the-counter drugs and the resulting consequences of each; and

(M) describe how substance misuse, including prescription drug misuse, can lead to addiction.

(7) [(6)] Influencing factors. The student understands how physical and social environmental factors can influence individual and community health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) relate physical and social environmental factors to individual and community health such as climate and gangs; [and]

(B) describe the application of strategies for controlling the environment such as emission control, water quality, and waste management; and[.]

(C) discuss the influence of physical and social environmental factors on substance misuse.

(8) [(7)] Influencing factors. The student investigates positive and negative relationships that influence individual, family, and community health. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze positive and negative relationships that influence individual and community health such as families, peers, and role models; and

(B) develop strategies for monitoring positive and negative relationships that influence health.

(9) [(8)] Influencing factors. The student researches ways in which media and technology influence individual and community health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the influence of media and technology on social norms such as using prescription drugs and the social commitment not to use illegal drugs;

(B) [(A)] explain the role of media and technology in influencing individuals and community health such as watching television or reading a newspaper and billboard; and

(C) [(B)] explain how programmers develop media to influence buying decisions.

(10) [(9)] Influencing factors. The student understands how social factors impact personal, family, community, and world health. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal health behaviors and knowledge unique to different generations and populations; and

(B) describe characteristics that contribute to family health.

(11) [(10)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student recognizes and uses communication skills in building and maintaining healthy relationships. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between positive and negative peer pressure;

(B) describe the application of effective coping skills;

(C) distinguish between effective and ineffective listening such as paying attention to the speaker versus not making eye-contact;

(D) summarize and relate conflict resolution/mediation skills to personal situations; and

(E) appraise the importance of social groups.

(12) [(11)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student understands, analyzes, and applies healthy ways to communicate consideration and respect for self, family, friends, and others. The student is expected to:

(A) describe techniques for responding to criticism;

(B) demonstrate strategies for coping with problems and stress;

(C) describe strategies to show respect for individual differences including age differences;

(D) describe methods of communicating emotions;

(E) describe the effect of stress on personal and family health; [and]

(F) describe the relationships between emotions and stress; and[.]

(G) discuss how substance misuse, including prescription drug misuse, and substance use disorders impact families and communities.

(13) [(12)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student analyzes information and applies critical-thinking, decision-making, goal-setting, and problem-solving skills for making health-promoting decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret critical issues related to solving health problems;

(B) relate practices and steps necessary for making health decisions;

(C) appraise the risks and benefits of decision-making about personal health;

(D) predict the consequences of refusal skills in various situations;

(E) examine the effects of peer pressure on decision making;

(F) develop strategies for setting long-term personal and vocational goals; and

(G) demonstrate time-management skills.

(14) [(13)] Bullying prevention. The student analyzes bullying information and applies strategies for enhancing and maintaining healthy personal relationships throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze strategies for preventing bullying, harassment, dating violence, and sexual assault;

(B) describe the seriousness of various forms of bullying such as harassment, acquaintance rape, and sexual abuse;

(C) demonstrate empathy toward others;

(D) analyze ways to show disapproval of inconsiderate and disrespectful bullying behavior; and

(E) recognize the responsibility to report bullying behavior.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700683

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §115.32, §115.33

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(c), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.002(w), which requires the SBOE to adopt essential knowledge and skills that address the dangers, causes, consequences, signs, symptoms, and treatment of nonmedical use of prescription drugs.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(c) and (w).

§115.32.Health 1, Grades 9-10 (One-Half Credit).

(a) Introduction.

(1) In health education, students acquire the health information and skills necessary to become healthy adults and learn about behaviors in which they should and should not participate. To achieve that goal, students will understand the following: students should first seek guidance in the area of health from their parents; personal behaviors can increase or reduce health risks throughout the lifespan; health is influenced by a variety of factors; students can recognize and utilize health information and products; and personal/interpersonal skills are needed to promote individual, family, and community health.

(2) In Health 1, students develop skills that will make them health-literate adults. Students gain a deeper understanding of the knowledge and behaviors they use to safeguard their health, particularly pertaining to health risks. Students are taught how to access accurate information that they can use to promote health for themselves and others. Students use problem-solving, research, goal-setting and communication skills to protect their health and that of the community.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Health information. The student analyzes health information and applies strategies for enhancing and maintaining personal health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) relate the nation's health goals and objectives to individual, family, and community health;

(B) examine the relationship among body composition, diet, and fitness;

(C) explain the relationship between nutrition, quality of life, and disease;

(D) describe the causes, symptoms, and treatment of eating disorders;

(E) examine issues related to death and grieving;

(F) discuss health-related social issues such as organ donation and homelessness;

(G) analyze strategies to prevent suicides;

(H) examine causes and effects of stress and develop strategies for managing stress and coping with anxiety and depression; [and]

(I) describe the importance of taking responsibility for establishing and implementing health maintenance for individuals and family members of all ages;[.]

(J) identify the categories of drugs and what they are used to treat; and

(K) examine examples of drug labels to determine the drug category and intended use.

(2) Health information. The student is health literate in disease prevention and health promotion throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the relationship between health promotion and disease prevention;

(B) analyze the influence of laws, policies, and practices on health-related issues including those related to disease prevention;

(C) identify, describe, and assess available health-related services in the community that relate to disease prevention and health promotion; [and]

(D) develop and analyze strategies related to the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases;[.]

(E) explain why some medications require a prescription;

(F) explain the connection between the proper and safe use of prescription drugs and overall health;

(G) investigate the potential negative effects of combining drugs, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs; and

(H) analyze the consequences of substance misuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs.

(3) Health information. The student recognizes the importance and significance of the reproductive process as it relates to the health of future generations. The student is expected to:

(A) explain fetal development from conception through pregnancy and birth;

(B) explain the importance of the role of prenatal care and proper nutrition in promoting optimal health for both the baby and the mother such as breast feeding;

(C) analyze the harmful effects of certain substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and prescription drugs and environmental hazards such as lead on the fetus [such as alcohol, tobacco, other drugs, and environmental hazards such as lead]; and

(D) explain the significance of genetics and its role in fetal development.

(4) Health information. The student investigates and evaluates the impact of media and technology on individual, family, community, and world health. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the health messages delivered through media and technology; [and]

(B) explain how technology has impacted the health status of individuals, families, communities, and the world; and[.]

(C) examine social influences on drug-taking behaviors.

(5) Health information. The student understands how to evaluate health information for appropriateness. The student is expected to:

(A) develop evaluation criteria for health information;

(B) demonstrate ways to utilize criteria to evaluate health information for appropriateness;

(C) discuss the legal implications regarding sexual activity as it relates to minor persons; and

(D) demonstrate decision-making skills based on health information.

(6) Health behaviors. The student assesses the relationship between body structure and function and personal health throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) examine the effects of health behaviors on body systems;

(B) relate the importance of early detection and warning signs that prompt individuals of all ages to seek health care; and

(C) appraise the significance of body changes occurring during adolescence.

(7) Health behaviors. The student analyzes the relationship between unsafe behaviors and personal health and develops strategies to promote resiliency throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe forms of prescription drug misuse such as combining drugs for another effect and administering a drug improperly and substance use disorders;

(B) [(A)] analyze the harmful effects such as the physical, mental, social, and legal consequences of alcohol, tobacco, drugs, including prescription drugs, and other substances [such as physical, mental, social, and legal consequences];

(C) [(B)] explain the relationship between alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs and other substances used by adolescents and the role these substances play in unsafe situations such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease [Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Sexually Transmitted Disease] (STD), unplanned pregnancies, and motor vehicle accidents;

(D) [(C)] develop strategies for preventing use of tobacco, alcohol, and other addictive substances;

(E) develop strategies for preventing the misuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs;

(F) [(D)] analyze the importance of alternatives to drug and substance use;

(G) [(E)] analyze and apply strategies for avoiding violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs; and

(H) [(F)] analyze strategies for preventing and responding to deliberate and accidental injuries. [;]

[(G) analyze the relationship between the use of refusal skills and the avoidance of unsafe situations such as sexual abstinence;]

[(H) analyze the importance and benefits of abstinence as it relates to emotional health and the prevention of pregnancy and sexually-transmitted diseases;]

[(I) analyze the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of barrier protection and other contraceptive methods including the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), keeping in mind the effectiveness of remaining abstinent until marriage;]

[(J) analyze the importance of healthy strategies that prevent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse such as date rape;]

[(K) analyze the importance of abstinence from sexual activity as the preferred choice of behavior in relationship to all sexual activity for unmarried persons of school age; and]

[(L) discuss abstinence from sexual activity as the only method that is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and the emotional trauma associated with adolescent sexual activity.]

(8) Health behaviors. The student analyzes health information and applies decision-making skills to promote the development and practice of safe behaviors. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the relationship between the use of refusal skills and the avoidance of unsafe situations such as sexual abstinence;

(B) analyze the importance and benefits of abstinence as it relates to emotional health and the prevention of pregnancy and sexually-transmitted diseases;

(C) analyze the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of barrier protection and other contraceptive methods, including the prevention of STDs, keeping in mind the effectiveness of remaining abstinent until marriage;

(D) analyze the importance of healthy strategies that prevent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse such as date rape;

(E) analyze the importance of abstinence from sexual activity as the preferred choice of behavior in relationship to all sexual activity for unmarried persons of school age; and

(F) discuss abstinence from sexual activity as the only method that is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy, STDs, and the sexual transmission of HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome and the emotional trauma associated with adolescent sexual activity.

(9) [(8)] Influencing factors. The student analyzes the effect of relationships on health behaviors. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate positive and negative effects of various relationships on physical and emotional health such as peers, family, and friends; and

(B) explain the benefits of positive relationships among community health professionals in promoting a healthy community.

(10) [(9)] Influencing factors. The student differentiates between positive and negative family influences. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the roles of parents, grandparents, and other family members in promoting a healthy family; and

(B) analyze the dynamics of family roles and responsibilities relating to health behavior.

(11) [(10)] Influencing factors. The student evaluates the effect of a variety of environmental factors on community and world health. The student is expected to:

(A) assess the impact of population and economy on community and world health;

(B) analyze the impact of the availability of health services in the community and the world; and

(C) describe a variety of community and world environmental protection programs.

(12) [(11)] Influencing factors. The student understands how to access school and community health services for people of all ages. The student is expected to:

(A) describe ways to report the suspected abuse of drugs to a parent or school administrator, teacher, or other trusted adult;

(B) [(A)] research various school and community health services for people of all ages such as vision and hearing screenings and immunization programs; and

(C) [(B)] compare and analyze the cost, availability, and accessibility of health services for people of all ages.

(13) [(12)] Influencing factors. The student understands situations in which people of all ages require professional health services. The student is expected to:

(A) identify support systems aimed at substance use disorders and substance misuse, including prescription drug misuse;

(B) [(A)] identify situations requiring professional health services for people of all ages such as primary, preventive, and emergency care; and

(C) [(B)] explain how to access health services for people of all ages.

(14) [(13)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student analyzes, designs, and evaluates communication skills for building and maintaining healthy relationships throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate communication skills in building and maintaining healthy relationships;

(B) distinguish between a dating relationship and a marriage;

(C) analyze behavior in a dating relationship that will enhance the dignity, respect, and responsibility relating to marriage;

(D) evaluate the effectiveness of conflict resolution techniques in various situations;

(E) demonstrate refusal strategies;

(F) explore methods for addressing critical-health issues; and

(G) evaluate the dynamics of social groups.

(15) [(14)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student analyzes, designs, and evaluates strategies for expressing needs, wants, and emotions in healthy ways. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate strategies for communicating needs, wants, and emotions;

(B) examine the legal and ethical ramifications of unacceptable behaviors such as harassment, acquaintance rape, and sexual abuse; and

(C) communicate the importance of practicing abstinence.

(16) [(15)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student appraises communication skills that show consideration and respect for self, family, friends, and others. The student is expected to:

(A) apply communication skills that demonstrate consideration and respect for self, family, and others;

(B) demonstrate empathy towards others; and

(C) analyze ways to show disapproval of inconsiderate and disrespectful behavior.

(17) [(16)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student synthesizes information and applies critical-thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving skills for making health-promoting decisions throughout the life span. The student is expected to:

(A) identify individual and community protective factors and skills that prevent substance misuse and substance use disorders such as refusing invitations to misuse prescription drugs, knowing the risks associated with substance misuse, and reporting the use of drugs to a parent or school administrator, teacher, or other trusted adult;

(B) [(A)] identify decision-making skills that promote individual, family, and community health;

(C) [(B)] summarize the advantages of seeking advice and feedback regarding the use of decision-making and problem-solving skills;

(D) [(C)] classify forms of communication such as passive, aggressive, or assertive; and

(E) [(D)] associate risk-taking with consequences such as drinking and driving.

(18) [(17)] Personal/interpersonal skills. The student applies strategies for advocating and evaluating outcomes for health issues. The student is expected to:

(A) research information about a personal health concern;

(B) demonstrate knowledge about personal and family health concerns; and

(C) develop strategies to evaluate information relating to a variety of critical health issues.

§115.33.Advanced Health, Grades 11-12 (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. The recommended prerequisite for this course is Health 1 [I].

(b) Introduction.

(1) In health education, students acquire the health information and skills necessary to become healthy adults and learn about behaviors in which they should and should not participate. To achieve that goal, students will understand the following: students should first seek guidance in the area of health from their parents; personal behaviors can increase or reduce health risks throughout the lifespan; health is influenced by a variety of factors; students can recognize and utilize health information and products; and personal/interpersonal skills are needed to promote individual, family, and community health.

(2) In Advanced Health, students are provided opportunities for researching, discussing, and analyzing health issues. This higher level of involvement provides students with experiences designed to reinforce positive health behaviors. Students are given the opportunity to learn more about technology, how it affects health, and how to use electronic technology to gain health information. The emphasis in this course is less related to learning facts and more related to providing students with the skills necessary to access their own health information and services and become health literate.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Health information. The student applies technology to analyze and appraise personal health. The student is expected to:

(A) generate a personal-health profile using appropriate technology such as stress reduction, body fat composition, and nutritional analysis; and

(B) explain how technology can influence health.

(2) Health information. The student researches and analyzes information in the management of health promotion and disease prevention. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate various sources in the community that promote health and prevent disease; and

(B) design health promotion materials.

(3) Health information. The student investigates the importance and significance of the reproductive process as it relates to the health of future generations. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze problems during various stages of fetal development;

(B) investigate the role of prenatal care and proper nutrition in promoting optimal health for both the baby and the mother such as breast feeding;

(C) describe the harmful effects of certain substances on the fetus such as alcohol, tobacco, environmental hazards such as lead, and prescription and other drugs;

(D) analyze roles of relationships and responsibilities relating to marriage; and

(E) analyze behavior in romantic relationships that enhance dignity, respect, and responsibility.

(4) Health information. The student evaluates the validity of health information. The student is expected to:

(A) research current health-related standards related to health information and products from valid sources such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration;

(B) analyze health information based on health-related standards; and

(C) evaluate the impact of laws relating to prescription and over-the-counter drug misuse and the use of [medication,] alcohol, tobacco, and other substances [drugs/substances].

(5) Health information. The student describes the effect of marketing and advertising on health behavior. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze marketing and advertising techniques in health-product and service promotion; and

(B) apply marketing and advertising techniques to health promotion.

(6) Health information. The student evaluates and utilizes communication skills in building and maintaining healthy relationships. The student is expected to:

(A) apply effective communication skills for building and maintaining healthy relationships;

(B) design strategies for implementing effective conflict resolution/mediation strategies; and

(C) present a model for effective communication skills.

(7) Health behaviors. The student generates strategies that address health-risk behaviors. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze strategies that minimize health-risk behaviors, including the misuse of prescription drugs;

(B) [(A)] participate in school-related efforts to address health-risk behaviors;

(C) [(B)] develop a plan to participate in community efforts to address health-risk behaviors;

(D) [(C)] develop educational-safety models for children and adults for use at home, school, and in the community;

(E) [(D)] evaluate the impact of laws relating to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, including prescription drugs, and other substances;

(F) [(E)] investigate treatment plans for drug addiction, including prescription drugs; and

(G) [(F)] describe the interrelatedness of alcohol and other drugs to health problems such as drugs and date rape, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease [Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Sexually Transmitted Disease] (STD), and drinking and driving.

(8) Influencing factors. The student researches and evaluates a variety of environmental factors that impact personal and community health. The student is expected to:

(A) examine the influence of culture and society on the misuse and abuse of prescription drugs in school, sports, or entertainment;

(B) [(A)] analyze the impact of environmental factors such as air, water, or noise on the health of the community such as air pollution affecting asthma and drought conditions affecting water supplies;

(C) [(B)] formulate strategies for combating environmental factors that have a detrimental effect on the health of a community; and

(D) [(C)] develop strategies for aiding in the implementation of a community environmental health plan.

(9) Influencing factors. The student assesses the impact of the economy on community and world health. The student is expected to:

(A) relate economic status to availability of health services within the community; and

(B) analyze health care costs of various health services in different countries.

(10) Influencing factors. The student recognizes the importance of personal contributions to the health of the community. The student is expected to:

(A) research and/or participate in community health programs that benefit various populations such as volunteering for teen health lines and volunteering in nursing homes; and

(B) participate in a presentation to educate others about a variety of health issues such as panel discussions and role plays or skits to inform younger students about the dangers of drug use, including the misuse of prescription drugs, or smoking.

(11) Influencing factors. The student understands issues related to community health services. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how the cost, availability, and accessibility of health care [health-care] services affects the community; and

(B) evaluate how the selection of health care services, products, and information affects the community.

(12) Influencing factors. The student investigates technological advances in the community that impact the health of individuals, families, and communities. The student is expected to:

(A) describe technological advances available in the community that treat health problems such as medical procedures at local hospitals for treating heart disease and cancer; and

(B) locate health care facilities at which members of the community can obtain medical care.

(13) Personal/interpersonal skills. The student analyzes, designs, and evaluates strategies for expressing needs, wants, and emotions in healthy ways. The student is expected to:

(A) create and apply strategies for communicating emotions, needs, and wants;

(B) demonstrate leadership skills for advocating health;

(C) investigate and summarize current laws relating to unacceptable behaviors such as harassment, acquaintance and statutory rape, and sexual abuse; and

(D) create strategies that promote the advantages of abstinence.

(14) Personal/interpersonal skills. The student evaluates communication skills that show consideration and respect for self, family, friends, and others. The student is expected to:

(A) appraise effective communication skills that demonstrate consideration and respect for self, family, and others;

(B) associate effective communication with success in school and the workplace;

(C) explain the detrimental effects of inconsiderate and disrespectful behavior;

(D) apply criteria for using passive, aggressive, and assertive communication in relationships;

(E) analyze the importance of abstinence from sexual activity as the preferred choice of behavior in relationship to all sexual activity for unmarried persons of school age; and

(F) discuss abstinence from sexual activity as the only method that is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy, STDs [sexually transmitted diseases], and the sexual transmission of HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and the emotional trauma associated with adolescent sexual activity.

(15) Personal/interpersonal skills. The student synthesizes information and applies strategies for making health-promoting decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify effective skills to resist and refuse invitations to misuse substances, including prescription drugs;

(B) [(A)] apply decision-making skills to health-promoting decisions;

(C) [(B)] interpret information provided by parents and other adults; and

(D) [(C)] determine causal connections that promote health in relationships.

(16) Personal/interpersonal skills. The student applies strategies for advocating and evaluating outcomes for health issues. The student is expected to:

(A) research information regarding personal and family health concerns;

(B) design materials for health advocacy; and

(C) apply the concept of research and evaluation for determining health information for special populations.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700684

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 128. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SPANISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING AND ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes new §§128.1-128.7 and 128.20-128.23, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Spanish language arts and reading and English as a second language. The proposed new sections would add new Spanish language arts and reading and English as a second language TEKS for elementary and middle school for implementation in the 2019-2020 school year.

Applications for appointment to English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees were accepted by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) from March 5, 2015 through April 6, 2015. The applications received were provided to SBOE members at the April 2015 meeting, and nominations for English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees and appointments of expert reviewers were made in spring 2015. Committee members were notified of the appointment in July 2015. The expert reviewers completed their review of the current TEKS and submitted initial reports to the SBOE in July 2015. Committee members participated in a training webinar in August 2015 in preparation for the first face-to-face meeting. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened in Austin in September 2015 to begin work on draft recommendations for the TEKS. The committees convened again in November 2015 to complete their initial draft recommendations.

In December 2015, the first draft recommendations were provided to the board and to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website for informal public feedback. In accordance with the board's review process, each of the expert reviewers and one member of each TEKS review committee presented invited testimony at the January 2016 meeting.

The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees convened for a third time in February 2016 in order to review feedback and work on the vertical alignment of the TEKS across grade levels and subjects. At the request of the board chair, representatives from each of the vertical alignment committees were asked to attend the April 2016 meeting to answer questions from board members. At that time, the board provided additional direction for the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committee members to address at their next meeting.

The committees met for a fourth time in April 2016 to address the board's direction and finalize their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS committees' final recommendations were provided to the board-appointed expert reviewers and posted to the TEA website in June 2016.

Representatives from the TEKS review committees convened in Austin in June 2016 to review the drafts and provide feedback regarding whether the recommended TEKS for each grade level or course can reasonably be taught within the amount of time typically allotted for the subject or course prior to the end of the school year or a state end-of-course assessment required by TEC, §39.023, as applicable.

At the July 2016 meeting, the committee heard invited testimony from board-appointed expert reviewers regarding their feedback on the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS review committees' final recommendations. At that meeting, the board discussed next steps, reviewed timeline considerations for issuance of a proclamation for instructional materials for English and Spanish language arts and reading, and requested that staff make technical edits to the proposed revisions. The board also requested that the SBOE-appointed experts review the edited final recommendations and make suggestions to ensure the appropriate vertical alignment of the proposed TEKS. Additionally, the board requested feedback on the proposed revisions to the English language arts and reading TEKS from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. The expert reviewers met in August 2016 and again in November 2016 to work on their recommendations for revisions to the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The expert reviewers also met virtually with representatives from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board panel to discuss higher education recommendations. Drafts resulting from that work were provided at the November 2016 meeting. At that time, the SBOE requested that the expert reviewers finalize their recommendations. The expert reviewers conducted virtual meetings in November 2016 and December 2016 to complete their recommendations.

The SBOE approved the proposed new Spanish language arts and reading and English as a second language TEKS for elementary and middle school for first reading and filing authorization at its February 3, 2017 meeting. Also at the February meeting, the SBOE postponed consideration of the English as a second language TEKS for high school until the April 2017 meeting.

The proposed new sections would have no new procedural and reporting implications.

The proposed new sections would have no new locally maintained paperwork requirements.

FISCAL NOTE. Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and support services, has determined that for the first five-year period the proposed new sections are in effect there will be fiscal implications for the state. Implications for the TEA in fiscal years 2015, 2016, and 2017 include reimbursing committee members and expert reviewers for travel to review and revise the English and Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. There are also implications for the TEA to create professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the revisions to the TEKS. For fiscal year 2015, the estimated cost to the TEA for reviewing and revising the TEKS was $4,700; for fiscal year 2016, the estimated cost was $275,000; and for fiscal year 2017, the estimated cost is $3,500. The TEA does not anticipate any implications for the state beyond fiscal year 2017.

There are anticipated fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools to implement the new TEKS, which may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

There is no effect on local economy for the first five years that the proposed new sections are in effect; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

PUBLIC BENEFIT/COST NOTE. Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposed new sections are in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the new sections will be better alignment of the TEKS and coordination of the standards with the adoption of instructional materials. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed new sections.

ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT AND REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND MICROBUSINESSES. There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

REQUEST FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Rulemaking, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.texas.gov. A request for a public hearing on the proposed amendment submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register. The SBOE has specifically requested feedback regarding the amount of time needed to provide instruction in the proposed student expectations. Specific feedback related to the time needed to teach individual concepts would be helpful.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§128.1 - 128.7

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§128.1.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Elementary, Adopted 2017.

(a) The provisions of this section and §§128.2-128.7 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading as adopted in §§128.2-128.7 of this title.

(c) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§128.2-128.7 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§128.2-128.7 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e) Sections 128.11-128.16 of this title shall be superseded by the implementation of this section and §§128.2-128.7 of this title.

§128.2.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(5) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(6) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(7) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(8) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively and ask questions to understand information;

(B) follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) identifying and producing rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

(iv) identifying syllables in spoken words;

(v) blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

(vii) identifying initial and final sounds in simple words;

(viii) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words;

(ix) manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word; and

(x) segmenting spoken one-syllable words into individual phonemes;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

(ii) using letter-sound relationships to decode one- and two-syllable words, including CV, CVC, VCV, and CVCV; and

(iii) recognizing that new words are created when letters or syllables are changed, added, or deleted;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling common letter and sound correlations; and

(ii) spelling words with common patterns such as CV, CVC, VCV, and CVCV;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by:

(i) identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

(ii) holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

(iii) recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

(iv) recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

(v) identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

(C) identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) provide an oral or pictorial response to a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) identify and describe the main character(s);

(C) describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud with adult assistance; and

(D) describe the setting.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature, including folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems;

(C) participate in and identify main characters in a play;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central or main idea with adult assistance;

(ii) titles and simple graphics to gain information; and

(iii) the steps in a sequence with adult assistance; and

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(9) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss with adult assistance the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts with adult assistance using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences;

(ii) verbs;

(iii) singular and plural nouns, including articles;

(iv) descriptive adjectives;

(v) pronouns;

(vi) capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and names; and

(vii) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and

(E) share writing.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and

(B) dictate or compose informational texts.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§128.3.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(5) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(6) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(7) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(8) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself and others, relating experiences to a classmate, and expressing needs and feelings.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed;

(iv) segmenting spoken one-syllable words into individual phonemes;

(v) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words, including consonant blends;

(vi) segmenting spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes, including words with consonant blends; and

(vii) manipulating phonemes within base words;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching sounds to individual letters;

(ii) decoding words in isolation and in context with all vowel and consonant sounds;

(iii) decoding words with consonant digraphs such as /ch/, /rr/, and /ll/ and consonant blends such as /bl/, /br/, /gl/, and /gr/;

(iv) decoding words with diphthongs such as /ai/, /au/, and /ei/;

(v) decoding contractions such as al and del;

(vi) decoding three- to four-syllable words;

(vii) using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words; and

(viii) decoding words with common prefixes and suffixes;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling common letter and sound correlations;

(ii) spelling words with common patterns such as CV, CVC, VCV, and CVCV;

(iii) spelling words with consonant digraphs such as /ch/, /rr/, and /ll/ and consonant blends such as /bl/, /br/, and /gl/;

(iv) spelling three- to four-syllable words;

(v) spelling contractions such as al and del;

(vi) spelling words with diphthongs such as /ai/, /au/, and /ei/ and hiatus such as le-er, rí-o, quie-ro, na-die, and ra-dio; and

(vii) spelling words with common prefixes and suffixes;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and

(F) develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings;

(C) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, categories, and locations; and

(D) identify the meaning of words with affixes including, -s, -es, and -or.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character(s) and how their feelings and actions change;

(C) describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and alliteration in a variety of poems;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central or main idea with adult assistance;

(ii) features and simple graphics to locate or gain information; and

(iii) temporal sequence and description; and

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past and present verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including articles;

(iv) descriptive adjectives;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions;

(vii) pronouns;

(viii) capitalization for the beginning of sentences; and

(ix) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences and at the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) dictate or compose informational texts, including procedural texts; and

(C) dictate or compose correspondence.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§128.4.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(5) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(6) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(7) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(8) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others; and

(E) develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding multi-syllabic words;

(ii) decoding words with consonant blends and digraphs;

(iii) decoding words with diphthongs and hiatus;

(iv) decoding common abbreviations; and

(v) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multi-syllabic words;

(ii) spelling words with consonant blends and digraphs;

(iii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus;

(iv) spelling common abbreviations; and

(v) spelling words with prefixes and suffixes; and

(C) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and

(D) develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;

(C) use affixes, including re-, pre-, -ción, and ísimo/ísima, to determine the meaning of words and subsequently use the newly acquired words; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the internal and external traits of the main character(s);

(C) describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the importance of the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;

(B) explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central or main idea with adult assistance;

(ii) features and graphics to locate and gain information; and

(iii) chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly; and

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;

(E) identify the use of first or third person in a text; and

(F) explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including articles;

(iv) descriptive adjectives and articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns;

(viii) capitalization for proper nouns and the salutation and closing of a letter; and

(ix) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences and the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports; and

(C) compose correspondence.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) cite sources appropriately; and

(G) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§128.5.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(5) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(6) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(7) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(8) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules, norms, and protocols; and

(E) develop social communication such as conversing politely in all situations.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(ii) decoding words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent "h" and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi;

(iv) becoming very familiar with the concept of hiatus and diphthongs and the implications for orthographic accents;

(v) decoding and differentiating meaning of a word based on a diacritical accent; and

(vi) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras graves (words with an accent on the penultimate/last syllable);

(ii) spelling palabras esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable) that have an orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling words with the concept of hiatus and diphthongs and their implications for orthographic accents;

(iv) using accents on words commonly used in questions and exclamations;

(v) spelling words based on the diacritical accent such as se/sé, el/él, and mas/más;

(vi) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses;

(vii) spelling words with silent "h" and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(viii) spelling words that have the same sounds represented by different letters, including "ll" and "y"; "c," "k," and "q"; soft c, soft x, s, and z; and soft g, j, and x;

(ix) spelling words with hard and soft /r/;

(x) spelling words using "n" before "v"; "m" before "b"; and "m" before "p";

(xi) spelling words with consonant blends; and

(xii) spelling the plural form of words ending in "z" by replacing the "z" with "c" before adding -es; and

(C) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter; and

(D) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly in cursive leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and multiple-meaning words;

(C) use and identify the meaning of words with affixes, including in-, des-, ex-, -mente, -dad, -oso, -eza, and -ura, and know how the affix changes the meaning of the word; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in a text.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to a literary or informational text that demonstrates an understanding of a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer the theme of a work, distinguishing theme from topic;

(B) explain the relationship among the major and minor characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the problem, and the resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths;

(B) explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea;

(ii) features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding of the text; and

(iii) cause and effect and problem and solution; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) explain the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) descriptive and limiting adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time and manner;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) possessive pronouns;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound predicates, subjects, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization for proper nouns, geographical names and places, historical periods, and official titles of people; and

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in a series and dates, and correct mechanics, including indentations; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives, fiction, and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) create a works cited page; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§128.6.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(5) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(6) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(7) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(8) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) using orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables, including diphthongs and formal and accented hiatus;

(iii) decoding and differentiating meaning of a word based on the diacritical accent; and

(iv) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas y graves (words with the stress on the penultimate and last syllable) with an orthographic accent;

(ii) spelling palabras esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable) that have an orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(iv) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses; and

(C) write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use base words with affixes, including mono-, sobre-, sub-, inter-, poli-, -able, -ante, -eza, -ancia, and -ura, and roots, including auto, bio, grafía, metro, fono, and tele;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of idioms, homographs, and homophones such as abrasar/abrazar; and

(E) complete analogies using knowledge of antonyms and synonyms.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to compare and contrast ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer basic themes supported by text evidence;

(B) explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea;

(ii) features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding of the text; and

(iii) compare and contrast; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify the use of hyperbole.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) irregular verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns and correlating articles when applicable;

(iv) descriptive adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and intensity;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) reflexive pronouns;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound predicates, subjects, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization for historical events and documents, titles of books, stories, and essays; and

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in compound and complex sentences and em dash for dialogue; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§128.7.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(5) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(6) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(7) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(8) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret verbal and non-verbal messages, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) using orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables, including diphthongs and formal and accented hiatus;

(iii) decoding and differentiating meaning of word based on the diacritical accent; and

(iv) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules;

(ii) spelling palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and last syllable) with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling palabras sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate syllable) with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(iv) spelling words with hiatus and diphthongs; and

(v) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, and word origin;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use base words with affixes, including trans-, super-, anti-, semi-, -logía, -ificar, -ismo, and -ista and roots, including audi, crono, foto, geo, and terr;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of idioms, adages, and puns;

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque, porqué, por qué, and por que; sino and si no; and también and tan bien; and

(F) produce analogies with known antonyms and synonyms.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to compare and contrast ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within a text using text evidence;

(B) analyze the relationships of and conflicts among the characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) analyze the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain the use of sound devices and figurative language and distinguish between the poet and the speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea;

(ii) features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding of text; and

(iii) logical order and order of importance; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for or against an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) examine how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the purpose of hyperbole and stereotyping.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) irregular verbs;

(iii) collective nouns;

(iv) descriptive adjectives, including those indicating origin, and their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and intensity;

(vi) conjunctive adverbs;

(vii) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(viii) indefinite pronouns;

(ix) correlative conjunctions;

(x) capitalization for initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(xi) punctuation marks, including commas in compound and complex sentences and em dash for dialogue; and

(xii) proper mechanics, including italics and underlining for titles and emphasis and quotation marks for titles; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) understand credibility of primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700687

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§128.20 - 128.23

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are proposed under the Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and TEC, §28.002, which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum and requires the SBOE by rule to identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§128.20.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Spanish Language Arts and Reading and English as a Second Language, Middle School, Adopted 2017.

(a) The provisions of this section and §§128.21-128.23 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading and English as a Second Language as adopted in §§128.21-128.23 of this title.

(c) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§128.21-128.23 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§128.21-128.23 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e) Section 128.18 of this title shall be superseded by the implementation of this section and §§128.21-128.23 of this title.

§128.21.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(5) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(6) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency level to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(7) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(8) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;

(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) differentiating between commonly confused terms such as porque, porqué, por qué, and por que; asimismo (adverbio) and así mismo (de la misma manera); sino and si no; and también and tan bien;

(ii) decoding palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and ultimate/last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(iii) decoding words with hiatus and diphthongs; and

(iv) using knowledge of syllable division patterns and morphemes to decode multisyllabic words;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and ultimate/last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect conditional, and future tenses; and

(iii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words;

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Greek and Latin roots, including metro-, grafo-, scrib-, and port-;

(D) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque, porqué, por qué, and por que; sino and si no; and también and tan bien; and

(E) complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response with accurate text evidence to compare sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback; and

(D) compare and contrast historical and cultural settings across texts.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;

(B) analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) identify the elements of a play, including acts, scenes, stage directions, and scripted dialogue;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis;

(ii) features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information of the text; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage; and

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice; and

(G) identify and explain the differences between the use of hyperbole and sarcasm in texts.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) consistent verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) indefinite pronouns;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(vii) capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(viii) commas in compound and complex sentences and after transitions, introductory words, and phrases;

(ix) correct punctuation of dialogue;

(x) proper mechanics for referencing titles of books; and

(xi) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement, genre characteristics, and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) reliability;

(ii) credibility and bias; and

(iii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(H) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§128.22.English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements.

(1) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 may be substituted for English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7. All expectations apply to English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ELLA Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others' ideas;

(B) follow, restate, and give increasingly complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways; and

(E) engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources, including dictionaries, thesauri, or glossaries, to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words;

(C) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(D) use and determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek, Latin, and other languages, including omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent; un-, re-, -ly, and -er/or; and -ion/tion/sion, im- (into), non-, dis-, in- (not, non), pre-, -ness, -y, -er (comparative), -est, and -ful;

(E) use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose and use appropriate rate, accuracy, and prosody when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response with accurate text evidence to compare sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how characters' qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense to advance the plot; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;

(B) analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) describe how playwright(s) develop characters through the dialogue and staging of their plays;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis;

(ii) graphic and text features such as chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers; and

(iii) organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories;

(E) explain how informational text is designed to organize and convey ideas; and

(F) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) analyzing the evidence presented;

(iii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and

(iv) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including subjective and objective point of view;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) identify and explain loaded language, strawmen, and ad hominem arguments.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple, compound, and complex sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) consistent verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) relative pronouns;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions such as since, while, and until to form complex sentences;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) commas in compound and complex sentences and after transitions, introductory words, and phrases;

(ix) semicolons when appropriate;

(x) correct punctuation of dialogue and citation(s); and

(xi) correct spelling; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement, genre characteristics, and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) reliability;

(ii) credibility and bias; and

(iii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(H) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically;

(J) incorporate digital technology when appropriate; and

(K) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

§128.23.English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements.

(1) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 may be substituted for English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8. All expectations apply to English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ELLA Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message by summarizing, asking questions, and making comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific point of view;

(D) advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(E) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways; and

(F) participate collaboratively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources, including dictionaries, thesauri, or glossaries, to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words;

(C) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(D) use and determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek, Latin, and other languages, including ast, qui, path, mand/mend, and duc; auto, bio, graph, meter, phon, port, and tele; and terr, chrono, audi, geo, dict, photo, and ject;

(E) use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response with accurate and relevant text evidence and commentary to compare texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) analyze relationships among thematic development, characterization, point of view, setting, and plot in a variety of literary texts;

(B) analyze how characters' motivations and behaviors influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) explain how the setting influences the values and beliefs of characters.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, fantasy, science fiction, and short stories;

(B) identify structural elements such as rhyme, repetition, and alliteration and analyze how language contributes to the meaning of a poem;

(C) analyze the effect of graphical elements such as punctuation and line length in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry;

(D) describe how playwright(s) develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis;

(ii) footnotes, endnotes, and citations; and

(iii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(F) explain how informational text is designed to organize and convey ideas; and

(G) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim and analyzing the argument;

(ii) identifying and explaining the counter argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10) Author's craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as extended metaphor achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and analyze the use of literary devices, including multiple points of view and irony;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to the mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) identify and explain the use of rhetorical questions, bandwagon appeals, and sweeping generalizations.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple, compound, and complex sentences;

(ii) consistent verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) relative pronouns;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) commas in nonrestrictive phrases and clauses;

(ix) semicolons, colons, and parentheses when appropriate;

(x) correct punctuation of dialogue and citation(s);and

(xi) correct spelling; and

(F) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement, genre characteristics, and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) reliability;

(ii) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(iii) faulty reasoning such as bandwagon appeals, repetition, and loaded language;

(H) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically;

(J) incorporate digital technology when appropriate; and

(K) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 17, 2017.

TRD-201700688

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: April 2, 2017

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497